M.E. Grenander Department of Special Collections and Archives

ARCHIVES OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS AND POLICY

Finding Aid for the
ALVIN FORD
COLLECTION, 1965-1995
APAP-159

For reference queries contact M.E. Grenander Department of Special Collections and Archives Reference staff

Finding Aid Compiled by
Rob Taglianetti
November 2004



 
 
 
 
 
 

M. E. Grenander Department of Special Collections & Archives 
University Libraries / University at Albany / State University of New York
1400 Washington Avenue / Albany, New York 12222 / (518) 437-3935


VOLUME: 5.4 cubic ft., 1 video

ACQUISITION: All items in this manuscript group were donated to the University Libraries, M.E. Grenander Department of Special Collections and Archives, by Laurin A. Wollan, Jr. in June 2003. An additional as yet unprocessed accession was received from Michale Radelet in January 2006.

ACCESS: Access to these records is unrestricted.

COPYRIGHT: The researcher assumes full responsibility for conforming with the laws of copyright. Whenever possible, the M.E. Grenander Department of Special Collections and Archives will provide information about copyright owners and other restrictions, but the legal determination ultimately rests with the researcher. Requests for permission to publish material from this collection should be discussed with the Head of Special Collections and Archives.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Biographical Sketch

Scope and Content Note

Series Descriptions

Box and Folder List:


Alvin Ford
Biographical Sketch

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Alvin Bernard Ford (1953-1991) was convicted of first-degree murder in the slaying of a police officer in a failed robbery attempt in Florida on July 21, 1974. Ford entered prison at the age of 20 and was sentenced to die by electrocution in two separate criminal proceedings. He remained on death row until his death of natural causes on February 28, 1991 at the age of 37.

Ford was fighting depression and a drug addiction when he became involved in a robbery attempt at a Red Lobster restaurant in Ft. Lauderdale Florida in 1974. Ford's three accomplices left him at the scene with police approaching. In a panicked state, Ford chose to escape by taking the car of a police officer who was not aware of the severity of the situation when he arrived alone. Ford shot the officer twice in the abdomen and once in the back of the head while retrieving the officer's car keys. After being apprehended at his mother's home in Gainesville, Florida, Ford spent his first six years in prison under normal health conditions. In late 1981, at the end of the appeals process and within hours of his execution, Ford's mental condition deteriorated dramatically. For the next nine years he moved in and out of schizophrenia, which finally developed into sustained psychosis by the time his second death warrant was signed in 1984.

The Alvin Ford case was lengthy in part because of the questions that had not been answered adequately until his case was brought before the U.S. Supreme Court. The U.S. Supreme Court's verdict in the Ford case brought stricter guidelines than previously existed for determining if someone is mentally fit to defend himself in trial and whether the mentally ill should receive the death penalty. Capital punishment experts Kent S. Miller and Michael L. Radelet have written of the impact the Ford v. Wainwright decision had on the treatment of mentally ill prisoners on death row saying, "Alvin Ford made history as the man who forced the criminal justice authorities, lawyers, judges, politicians, mental heath professionals, and a host of others to seriously debate the question of what types of mental illness should exempt condemned prisoners from execution and how (and by whom) these life-and-death determinations should be made."[1]

The legal process of taking Ford's capital punishment case from arrest to execution in Florida involved many opportunities for him to appeal to circuit courts of appeal, the U.S. and Florida Supreme Courts, and the governor. After Ford's arrest on July 21, 1974, he was tried in December 1974, sentenced in early 1975, and after appeals to the Supreme Courts of Florida and the United States, received his first death warrant signed by Governor Bob Graham on November 4, 1981. The scheduled execution date was December 8, 1981. Fourteen hours before the scheduled execution Ford was granted a stay of execution by the Eleventh Circuit Court of Appeals in Atlanta. After further psychiatric evaluations, the governor's committee decided he was competent for execution and signed his second death warrant on April 30, 1984 with a scheduled execution date of May 31, 1984. Once again, the Eleventh Circuit Court of Appeals stepped in fourteen hours before Ford's scheduled execution and granted another stay of execution. When Ford's case was brought before the United States Supreme Court, it ruled on June 26, 1986 that the Eighth Amendment prohibits states from inflicting the death penalty upon prisoners who are insane and found that Florida's procedures for determining sanity had failed to adequately protect Ford's rights. Ford's sanity was not decided, however, and this led to a trial in early 1989 that found Ford competent for execution. The decision by a subsequent appeal to the Eleventh Circuit Court of Appeals was never passed down because Ford was found dead in his cell due to adult respiratory distress syndrome associated with fulminant acute pancreatitis on February 2, 1991.

The Ford case occurred at a time in the history of capital punishment in the United States of a resurgence in a get-tough-on-crime attitude embraced by politicians who pointed, in part, to their stand on the death penalty as evidence that they were tough on crime. This period began during the Nixon administration with some critical changes in the legal system that made capital punishment legal once again in the United States. The U.S. Supreme Court's decision in the Ford case set an important precedent since, up until the case, there were no clear-cut protections shielding the mentally ill from execution. The ruling took the final decision out of an individual governor's hands through clemency hearings and placed it within the court system.


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Notes

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1. Miller, Kent S. , and Michael L. Radelet. Executing the Mentally Ill: The Criminal Justice System and the Case of Alvin Ford. Newbury Park: Sage Publications, 1993. Research on Ford is not complete without this authoritative text on the Ford case. Miller, a psychologist, and Radelet, a sociologist, show the strain Death Warrants had on Ford by using Ford's letters and conduct.


Alvin Ford
Scope & Content Note

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This collection documents the seventeen year period (1974-1991) concerning the Florida capital punishment case of Alvin Ford. The collection primarily contains the court records and research material of Ford's attorney, Laurin A. Wollan, Jr., as well as other members of the Ford defense team who began work on the case in 1981. The legal records include official court proceedings from the initial trial in 1974, appeals, attempts at clemency, and several cases by Ford against the Florida Department of Corrections. Other legal records include psychological reports, background reports, biographies of Ford, as well as his prison and medical records.

Several participants are represented in the collection over the case's duration. Robert Adams represented Ford from his initial trial until his appeal to the Florida Supreme Court was denied on July 18, 1979. A community organizer from the Florida Clearing House on Criminal Justice, Scharlette Holdman, located a volunteer lawyer, Deborah Fins, to represent Ford in his petition for certiorari to the U.S. Supreme Court and continued to consult for the Ford case over the next 10 years. After his certiorari case was denied, Holdman and Deborah Fins recruited a more experienced lawyer, Laurin A. Wollan, to represent Ford in his 1981 clemency hearings. Wollan took the case pro bono and continued to work on Ford's behalf over the next 10 years. Wollan was a 1962 graduate of the University of Chicago Law School. He served as a state's attorney in Illinois, spent four years with the U.S. Department for Justice, and was a member of the Florida State University faculty beginning in 1976. Although he was a death penalty supporter and a former prosecutor, his compassion for Ford's circumstance led him to accept the case on a pro bono basis. The size and scope of the files he created reveal Wollan's efforts on Ford's behalf, for example, as Ford's clemency hearing quickly approached in mid-1981, he was without legal representation. Wollan was asked to take the case and over the next six weeks, from August through October, he worked solely on the Ford case as he struggled to acquaint himself with the details of the case.[1] Attorney Richard Burr joined Wollan in volunteering to represent Ford just as Ford's first execution approached in 1981. Both remained on the Ford case until his death. A number of state officials are found throughout the case's legal documents including: Florida Governor Bob Graham who had the power to grant clemency to Ford; circaE. "Sonny" Strickland who was superintendent of the Florida State Prison; and Louie Wainwright and Richard Dugger who were Secretaries of the Department of Corrections for the State of Florida.

Ford's attorneys collected many articles, pamphlets, and publications on the subject of the death penalty. The research material in this collection represents many organizations, most of which oppose the death penalty. These include the NAACP Legal Defense Fund, National Coalition Against the Death Penalty, ACLU, Florida Clearing House on Criminal Justice, Amnesty International, Institute for Southern Studies, Florida Citizens Against the Death Penalty, and the Florida Conference Against Death Penalty. The collection also reveals the sentiment of these anti-death penalty groups during a time of resurgent support for the death penalty. The news clippings are a comprehensive part of the research material covering many death penalty cases in Florida spanning two decades.

The collection contains court records from at least six specific trials and many other appeals and motions that, besides chronicling the case, demonstrate one of the arguments which many anti-death penalty advocates utilize, that a death penalty case costs more than a sentence of life imprisonment. The collection is strongly enhanced by a separate collection of news clippings that directly relate to the Ford case. These news clippings are very helpful in understanding how the case developed.

While the collection contains a variety of records covering not only the legal aspects of the case, but also Ford himself, and presents a thorough example of the nature of representing a death penalty defendant, it is understandably limited to death penalty issues as they relate to the state of Florida. The implications, however, of the Supreme Court ruling on the Ford case in 1986, that a mentally ill prisoner cannot be executed and the resultant change in Florida and other states' laws concerning the process of identifying mentally ill prisoners, is what makes this collection so valuable.

Additional material for the Alvin Ford Collection was received from Michael Radelet in January 2006. This material is not yet inventoried in this finding aid.

Related collections in the M.E. Grenander Department of Special Collections and Archives can be found at the Web site for the National Death Penalty Archive.


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Notes

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1. Finkel, David. "Thwarting The Chair: The Lawyers Who Defend Death Row Inmates." St. Petersburg Times 7 November 1982.


Alvin Ford
Series Descriptions

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Series 1: Legal Records, 1974-1991, 3.8 cubic ft., Arranged alphabetically.

This series contains legal records that are mostly official court proceedings of the Alvin Ford cases covering a period of seventeen years. These cases include State of Florida v. Ford: 1974, which covers the original trial court proceedings. Later cases that bear the same style relate to later attempts of Ford on a motion for post conviction relief and stay of execution in 1981 and a second attempt in 1987. Ford v. State of Florida:1975-1988, Ford v. Strickland et al.: 1981-1984, Ford v. Wainwright: 1981-1988, and Ford v. Dugger: 1986-1991 all represent the trial cases Ford's attorneys filed against a succession of superintendents of the Florida State Prison and secretaries of the Department of Corrections. Other proceedings include multiple trials, pleas, motions, hearings, testimonies, and appeals. Other legal records are background studies on Ford that include detailed psychiatric evaluations, medical and prison records, case summaries, and undated notes by Laurin Wollan.

Series 2: Defense Team Research Material, 1972-1995, 1.26 cubic ft., Arranged by size and alphabetically thereafter.

This series contains the research material that Ford's defense team accumulated over the course of their representation of Ford and includes research material from years prior to and after the case. This series contains notes on cases in progress as well as some material from related cases. There are newsletters, briefings, pamphlets, bulletins, essays, reports, and publications which discuss anti-death penalty and related legal issues. Also included are photocopies of selections from various undated publications about the death penalty. This series represents literature from a wide spectrum of death penalty abolitionists. Several folders contain news clippings organized by year that give a good overview of related death penalty cases and issues. Many of the news clippings were photocopied before deposit in the Department of Special Collections and Archives, while others required preservation photocopying. Also of note are several papers on death penalty issues written by professors and others representing law schools and universities in the United States.

Series 3: Correspondence, 1970-1990, .17 cubic ft., Arranged alphabetically.

This series contains correspondence organized alphabetically by type (sent/received) and by year within each folder. A folder containing character references is noteworthy. These character references were written between late June and early August of 1981, around the time of Ford's parole hearings and clemency case. They are written by his mother, brother, teachers, and friends of the family who knew Ford all of his life. They testify that Ford was a normal, above average individual who none believed was bent toward murder. Of particular significance is a letter from one of Ford's teachers, Richard Curtis, who said Ford was a model teenager even winning an award for a science project. Correspondence received by Ford are mostly carbon copies retained by Wollan of letters he had sent to Ford. Letters sent by Ford are not represented in this series since they are located within a set of legal papers used in a trial to prove Ford's sanity. They are located in Series One in the folder, Proceedings To Determine Sanity. The General Correspondence folder contains letters that list Laurin Wollan as the recipient of carbon copies, but are not addressed to or from Wollan. Correspondence received by Wollan are usually letters from fellow lawyers and the folders of correspondence sent are carbon copies retained by Wollan that he sent to various individuals.

Series 4: Alvin Ford Biographical, 1965-1993, .17 cubic ft., Arranged chronologically.

This series contains newspaper and magazine articles, most of which are photocopied, about the Ford case. This series also contains a folder related to Ford's death and funeral. Also represented are a small collection of photographs of Ford at various ages and photographs of his attorneys. There is a short note from Connie Ford, Alvin's mother, to Attorney Wollan concerning a video of the Ford funeral, which is also contained in this collection. The most important resource in this series is the news clippings, which are very helpful in following the progression of the Ford case. The news clippings cover most major events in the Ford case. In addition to collecting news clippings, Laurin Wollan had an assistant visit Gainesville, Florida, where Ford was apprehended, and the assistant photocopied all articles from area papers that reported on the Ford story from 1974 to 1975.


Alvin Ford
Box and Folder List

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Series 1: Legal Records, 1974-1991

Box 1
Folder

1. Argument for Insanity, circa 1984-1986
2. Attorney Notes, 1974-1991
3. Attorney Notes, 1974-1991
4. Attorney Notes, 1974-1991
5. Attorney Notes, 1974-1991
6. Autopsy Testimony, Medical Examiner, 1974
7. Background Report, Ford, 1974-1981
8. Biography, Ford, 1981
9. Case Summaries, Ford, 1981
10. Clemency Hearing, 1981
11. Death Warrant, Ford, 1981
12. Deposition of Witnesses, 1981
13. Ford v. Dugger, 1986-1988
14. Ford v. Dugger, 1988
15. Ford v. Dugger, 1988
16. Ford v. Dugger, 1988
17. Ford v. Dugger, 1988
18. Ford v. Dugger, 1989-1991
19. Ford v. State of Florida, 1975-1977

Box 2
Folder

1. Ford v. State of Florida, 1979-1981
2. Ford v. State of Florida, 1981
3. Ford v. State of Florida, 1981
4. Ford v. State of Florida, 1984-1988
5. Ford v. Strickland et al., 1981
6. Ford v. Strickland et al., 1981
7. Ford v. Strickland et al., 1981
8. Ford v. Strickland et al., 1982
9. Ford v. Strickland et al., 1982
10. Ford v. Strickland et al., 1982
11. Ford v. Strickland et al., 1982
12. Ford v. Strickland et al., 1982
13. Ford v. Strickland et al., 1982
14. Ford v. Strickland et al., 1983
15. Ford v. Strickland et al., 1983
16. Ford v. Strickland et al., 1983
17. Ford v. Strickland et al., 1984

Box 3
Folder

1. Ford v. Wainwright, 1981-1984
2. Ford v. Wainwright, 1984
3. Ford v. Wainwright, 1984
4. Ford v. Wainwright, 1984
5. Ford v. Wainwright, 1984-1985
6. Ford v. Wainwright, 1985
7. Ford v. Wainwright, 1985
8. Ford v. Wainwright, 1985-1986
9. Ford v. Wainwright, 1986
10. Ford v. Wainwright, 1987-1988
11. Interview Transcript, Wollan and Ford, 1983
12. Prison Medical Records, 1975-1989
13. Prison Record, 1981
14. Proceedings to Determine Sanity, 1983
15. Proceedings to Determine Sanity, 1983
16. Psychiatric Reports, 1975-1988
17. Social and Criminal History, 1981

Box 4
Folder

1. State of Florida v. Ford, 1974
2. State of Florida v. Ford, 1974
3. State of Florida v. Ford, 1974
4. State of Florida v. Ford, 1974
5. State of Florida v. Ford, 1974
6. State of Florida v. Ford, 1974
7. State of Florida v. Ford, 1974
8. State of Florida v. Ford, 1974
9. State of Florida v. Ford, 1981
10. State of Florida v. Ford, 1981
11. State of Florida v. Ford, 1981
12. State of Florida v. Ford, 1981
13. State of Florida v. Ford, 1981


Alvin Ford
Box and Folder List

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Series 2: Defense Team Research Material, 1972-1995

Box 1
Folder

1. Death Penalty, News Clippings, 1972-1980
2. Death Penalty, News Clippings, 1981-1983
3. Death Penalty, News Clippings, 1984
4. Death Penalty, News Clippings, 1985-1987
5. Death Penalty, News Clippings, 1988-1995
6. Death Penalty, Newsletters, 1980-1989

Box 2
Folder

1. Death Penalty, Publications, circa 1974-1990
2. Ineffectiveness Case, 1980-1981
3. Race and Death Penalty in Florida, Report, 1984

Box 3
Folder

1. Bibliography, Death Penalty Publications, 1986
2. Capitol Punishment, National Prisoner Statistics Bulletin, 1978-1984
3. Capitol Punishment, National Prisoner Statistics Bulletin, 1974-1976
4. Death Penalty, Briefing, Amnesty International, 1986
5. Death Penalty, Cases, Other, 1981-1989
6. Death Penalty, Essays, 1977-1989
7. Death Penalty, Journals, 1983-1986
8. Death Penalty, Pamphlets, 1978-1990
9. Death Penalty, Legal Procedures, 1978
10. Death Penalty, Publications, circa 1974-1990

Box 4
Folder

1. Death Penalty, Publications, circa 1974-1990
2. Death Penalty, Publications, circa 1974-1990
3. Death Penalty, Publications, circa 1974-1990
4. Death Penalty, Publications, circa 1974-1990
5. Death Penalty, Publications, Reports, 1980-1986
6. Death Penalty, Research Papers, 1980-1990
7. Death Penalty, Research Papers, Michael Radelet, 1981-1985


Alvin Ford
Box and Folder List

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Series 3: Correspondence, 1979-1990

Box 1
Folder

1. Ford, Received, 1981-1988
2. General, 1981-1990
3. Wollan, Received, 1981-1990
4. Wollan, Sent, 1981-1988


Alvin Ford
Box and Folder List

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Series 4: Alvin Ford Biographical, 1965-1993

Box 1
Folder

1. Ford, Character References, 1981
2. Death of Alvin Ford, 1991
3. Ford, Connie, Correspondence, 1991
4. News Clippings, 1974-1981
5. News Clippings, 1982-1992
6. Photographs, 1965-1993

Ford Funeral VHS Video, 1991


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Last updated February 23, 2006