Table Of Contents

Descriptive Summary

Biographical Sketch

Scope and Content Information

Arrangement of the Collection

Restrictions

Subject and Genre Headings

Administrative Information

Container List

Series 1: General Electric- Non-Project Cirrus 1891-1993

Series 2: General Electric- Project Cirrus 1943-1954, 1981, Undated

Series 3: Munitalp Foundation 1940-1968, Undated

Series 4: Consulting 1950-1983

Series 5: Loomis School/Natural Sciences Institute 1949-1990, Undated

Series 6: Atmospheric Sciences Research Center 1950-1993, Undated

Series 7: The Institute on Man and Science 1963-1991

Series 8: Environmentalism 1940-1993

Series 9: Correspondence 1922-1993, Undated

Series 10: A Field Guide to the Atmosphere 1949-1992, Undated

Series 11: Films 1932-1971, Undated

Series 12: Biographical & Autobiographical Materials 1909-1993, Undated

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VINCENT J. SCHAEFER PAPERS, (UA-902.010), 1891-1993


Processed and encoded with the generous support of the National Historical Publications and Records Commission.



Descriptive Summary

Title: Vincent J. Schaefer Papers
Date: 1891-1993
Physical Characteristics: 135 cubic ft.
Abstract: The Vincent J. Schaefer Papers represent the professional accomplishments and personal interests of the scientist who discovered cloud seeding. Schaefer spent more than 20 years with General Electric in Schenectady, New York, working his way up from apprentice, to research assistant, to research associate. In those years he was mentored by Irving Langmuir, Nobel Prize winner in chemistry. The work Schaefer did at General Electric laid the foundation for further success as he became director of research for the Munitalp Foundation, began a highly successful summer science program for high school students, acted as an independent consultant, and founded the Atmospheric Sciences Research Center at the State University of New York at Albany. This collection contains research data, notes, correspondence, publications, and photographs that showcase Schaefer's long, industrious scientific career as well as highlighting his many hobbies in local history and environmentalism.
Storage: The materials are located onsite in the department.
Language: The materials in the collection are in English.
Repository: M. E. Grenander Department of Special Collections and Archives, University at Albany, SUNY

Biographical Sketch

Vincent J. Schaefer was born July 4, 1906, the oldest son of Peter Aloysius and Rose Agnes (Holtslag) Schaefer. Schaefer had two brothers, Paul and Carl, and two sisters, Gertrude and Margaret. The Schaefers lived in Schenectady, New York but enjoyed spending summers in the Adirondack Mountains. Schaefer had a lifelong association with the Adirondacks, as well as more general interests in hiking, natural history, and archeology. In his youth he was the founder of a local tribe of the Lone Scouts and with some of his friends wrote and printed a tribe paper called "Archeological Research." Schaefer credited this publication with his introduction to many prominent individuals in the Schenectady area, including Dr. Willis R. Whitney of the General Electric (G.E.) Research Laboratory.

In 1922 Schaefer found himself in the difficult position of having to leave school to supplement the family income. On the advice of his maternal uncles, Schaefer joined a four-year apprentice machinist course at G. E. During the second year of his apprenticeship, Schaefer was granted a one-month leave to accompany Dr. Arthur C. Parker, New York State Archeologist, on an expedition to central New York. As Schaefer was concluding the apprentice course in 1926 he was assigned to work at the machine shop of the G. E. Research Laboratory, where he worked for a year as a journeyman toolmaker.

Somewhat discouraged by his work in the machine shop, Schaefer sought to satisfy a desire to work outdoors and to travel by joining, initially through a correspondence course, the Davey Institute of Tree Surgery in Kent, Ohio, in 1927. After a brief period working in Michigan, Schaefer asked to be transferred back to the Schenectady area and for a while worked as an independent landscape gardener. Upon the advice of Robert Palmer, superintendent of the G.E. Research Laboratory, in 1929 Schaefer declined an opportunity to enter into a partnership for a plant nursery and instead rejoined the machine shop at the Research Laboratory, this time as a model maker.

During the late 1920s and early 1930s Schaefer built up his personal library on natural history, science, and his other areas of interest and read a great deal. He also organized groups with those who shared his many interests--the Mohawk Valley Hiking Club in 1929, the Van Epps-Hartley Chapter of the New York Archaeological Association in 1931, and the Schenectady Wintersport Club (which established snow trains to ski slopes in the Adirondacks) in 1932. In 1933 Schaefer began work on creating the Long Path of New York (a hiking trail beginning near New York City and ending at Whiteface Mountain in the Adirondacks). During this period Schaefer also created adult education programs on natural history topics which gave him opportunities to speak in the community. Through these many activities Schaefer continued to expand his acquaintances, including John Apperson, an engineer at General Electric and a devout conservationist of the Adirondacks. Apperson introduced Schaefer to Irving Langmuir, a scientist at the G.E. Research Laboratory who was awarded a Nobel Prize in 1932 for his work in surface chemistry. Among other things, Langmuir shared Schaefer's love of skiing and the outdoors.

At the Research Laboratory machine shop, Schaefer built equipment for Langmuir and his research associate, Katharine Blodgett. In 1932 Langmuir asked Schaefer to become his research assistant, which Schaefer accepted. In 1933 he began his research work with Langmuir, Blodgett, Whitney, and others at the Research Lab and throughout the G.E. organization. With his new colleagues as well as by himself, Schaefer published many reports on the areas he studied, which included surface chemistry techniques, electron microscope techniques, polarization, the affinity of ice for various surfaces, protein and other monolayers, studies of protein films, television tube brightness, and submicroscopic particulates. After his promotion to research associate in 1938, Schaefer continued to work closely with Langmuir on the many projects Langmuir obtained through his involvement on national advisory committees, particularly related to military matters in the years immediately before and during the Second World War. This work included research on gas mask filtration of smokes, submarine detection with binaural sound, and the formation of artificial fogs using smoke generators-- a project which reached fruition at Vrooman's Nose in the Schoharie Valley with a demonstration for military observers.

During Schaefer’s years as Langmuir's assistant, Langmuir encouraged him to carry on his own research projects. In 1940 Schaefer became known in his own right for the development of a method to make replicas of individual snowflakes using a thin plastic coating called Formvar. This discovery brought him national publicity in popular magazines and an abundance of correspondence from individuals, including many students, seeking to replicate his procedure.

In 1943 the focus of Schaefer's and Langmuir's research shifted to precipitation static, aircraft icing, ice nuclei, and cloud physics. Many of their experiments were carried out at Mount Washington Observatory in New Hampshire, where conditions were ideal for ice studies. In the summer of 1946, Schaefer developed a laboratory method to seed supercooled clouds with dry ice, and in November 1946 he conducted a successful field test seeding a natural cloud by airplane. The resulting publicity again brought him an abundance of correspondence, this time from people and businesses making requests for snow as well as scientists around the world also working on weather modification. Schaefer's discovery also led to debates over the appropriateness of tampering with nature through cloud seeding. In addition, the successful field test enabled Langmuir to obtain federal funding to support additional research in cloud seeding and weather modification by the G.E. Research Laboratory. Schaefer was coordinator of the laboratory portion of the U.S. military-sponsored Project Cirrus while the Air Force, Army Signal Corps, and Navy supplied the aircraft and pilots to carry out field tests and to collect the data used at the Research Laboratory. Field tests were conducted in the Schenectady area as well as in Puerto Rico and New Mexico.

When the military pilots working on Project Cirrus were assigned to duties in connection with the Korean War, G.E. recommended that Project Cirrus be discontinued after comprehensive reports were prepared of the project and the discoveries made. The final Project Cirrus report was issued in March 1953. While Project Cirrus was winding down, Schaefer was approached by Vernon Crudge on behalf of the trustees of a foundation called Munitalp to work on their newly-developed meteorological research program. For a time, Schaefer worked for both the Research Laboratory and Munitalp, but in 1954 he left the Research Laboratory to become the director of research for Munitalp. There Schaefer worked with the U.S. Forest Service in the northern Rocky Mountains on Project Skyfire, a program to determine the uses of cloud seeding to affect the patterns of lightning in thunderstorms (and the resulting forest fires started by lightning stikes). Project Skyfire had its roots in an association between the Forest Service and Schaefer begun in the early days of Project Cirrus. Schaefer also worked on developing a mobile atmospheric research laboratory and time-lapse films of clouds. Schaefer left Munitalp in 1958, turning down an offer to move with the organization to Kenya, but he remained an advisor to Munitalp for several years thereafter.

After leaving Munitalp, Schaefer's career turned toward scientific education. His own educational background left him with a firm belief in the power of independent learning and the importance of hands-on, practical experience. He worked with the American Meteorological Society and National Science Foundation on an educational film program and to develop what eventually became the Natural Sciences Institute (NSI) summer programs. The Atmospheric Sciences Program, as it was first known, gave high school students the opportunity to work with scientists while also conducting their own field research and experimentation. From 1959 to 1961 Schaefer was director of these summer sessions at the Loomis School in Connecticut. From 1962 to 1968 he continued the program under the auspices of the Atmospheric Sciences Research Center (ASRC) at the State University of New York at Albany, where it became the NSI. During this period Schaefer also continued his consulting work for many companies, government agencies, and universities. These consulting activities spanned most of Schaefer's career and extended beyond his retirement from the ASRC in 1976.

While conducting the Atmospheric Sciences Program, Schaefer’s work attracted the attention of Dean Oscar Lanford and President Evan Collins of the New York State Teachers College. They extended an invitation for Schaefer to come teach, which ultimately led to his founding of the Atmospheric Sciences Research Center in 1961. Schaefer himself became director in 1966, a position he held for ten years before giving control to Volker Mohnen. Schaefer brought highly qualified atmospheric science researchers to the ASRC, many of whom he had met through his work at G.E. and Munitalp. Bernard Vonnegut, Raymond Falconer and Duncan Blanchard were all veterans of Project Cirrus who joined Schaefer at the University at Albany. In addition to the NSI summer programs, Schaefer led annual research expeditions to Yellowstone National Park for scientists to conduct field work in the vicinity of Old Faithful. In the 1970s Schaefer's other research interests focused on solar energy, aerosols, gases, air quality, and pollution particles in the atmosphere. His work in some of these areas culminated in a three-part report on “Air Quality on the Global Scale” in 1978. In addition, during the 1970s, Schaefer was an instructor in the American Association for the Advancement of Science Chautauqua short courses for science teachers.

During his retirement, Schaefer worked with photographer John Day on A Field Guide to the Atmosphere (1981), a publication in the Peterson Field Guide series. In addition to continuing his consulting work, Schaefer was in a position to devote much more of his time to some of his life-long interests such as environmental issues and natural and local history. This included the writing of numerous articles and the delivering of many presentations concerning the natural environment of upstate New York and the human impact on it. He also devoted much of his time to the fight for the preservation of many wilderness areas and parks, such as the Mohonk Preserve, Vrooman's Nose, and the Great Flats Aquifer. Schaefer's long-term interest in Dutch barns made it possible for him to assume the editorship of Dutch Barn Miscellany for a time and to build a scale model of a Dutch barn. He also did a lot of research on the original settler families of the Schenectady and Mohawk Valley areas. During his retirement, Schaefer reflected on his extraordinary life, preparing timelines, an unpublished autobiography, and indices to some of his research notebooks and film collections. Schaefer also attended to the disposition of his papers and library. He worked on a project he entitled "Ancient Windows of the Earth," which involved the slicing of rocks thinly so as to create a translucent look. When he mounted such pieces on lampshades or other objects, it created a stained-glass window effect from the natural rock layers, highlighting the rock's geologic history. As part of this project, Schaefer designed and built a window in memory of his parents for the Saint James Church in North Creek in the Adirondacks.

Schaefer married Lois Perret on July 27, 1935. Until their deaths they lived on Schermerhorn Road in Schenectady, in a house Schaefer built with his brothers, which they called Woestyne South. Woestyne North was the name the Schaefers gave to their camp in the Adirondacks. The Schaefers had three children, Susan, Katherine, and James. Vincent Schaefer passed away July 25, 1993 at the age of 87.

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Scope and Content Information

The Vincent J. Schaefer Papers span Schaefer’s young adult years all the way through his retirement after leaving the Atmospheric Sciences Research Center at the University of Albany. His professional papers also include General Electric, the Munitalp Foundation, the Loomis School, and independent consulting. Schaefer was particularly well known for his role as the scientist who discovered cloud seeding, a development that stemmed from work he did with precipitation and ice nuclei studies during World War II. Schaefer was also known for his studies of surface chemistry, solar energy, and aerosols, and was a driving force in the environmental movements of the 1960s through the 1980s. The collection includes documentation of all of these topics, not only by Schaefer but by colleagues with whom he worked closely.

Additionally, this collection contains files documenting Schaefer's myriad personal interests, many of which focus on outdoor activities and demonstrate his love of nature. Researchers will find that there is much crossover between Schaefer's professional pursuits and the activities he enjoyed in his spare time.

While there are many records in the collection such as research notes, letters, notebooks, and maps, Schaefer also donated many photographs and films of his work, particularly in the area of cloud seeding. While the bulk of the collection comprises his professional life, there are also many files demonstrating Schaefer’s interests in local history, archaeology, and geography.

For related materials, please see the following collections held by the ME Grenander Department of Special Collection and Archives: Atmospheric Sciences Research Center Records (UA-450), which includes many publications and articles issued by the ASRC, Duncan Blanchard Papers (UA-902.065), Raymond Falconer Papers (UA-902.014) and Bernard Vonnegut Papers (APAP-UA-902.068)

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Arrangement of the Collection

The collection is organized into the following series and subseries:

Series 1 - General Electric (Non-Project Cirrus), 1891-1993, Undated
Subseries 1: Ice and Snow Research, 1932-1979, 1986, Undated
Subseries 2: Cloud Seeding & Weather Modification, 1932-1957, Undated
Subseries 3: General Research Notes, 1922-1954, 1970-1971, Undated
Subseries 4: Research Notebooks, 1936-1954
Subseries 5: Correspondence, 1939-1954, Undated
Subseries 6: Subject Files, 1891-1978, Undated
Subseries 7: Reports & Publications by Schaefer, 1936-1954, Undated
Subseries 8: Reports & Publications by Others- General Electric, 1913-1957, 1968, 1989, Undated
Subseries 9: Reports & Publications by Others- Non-General Electric, 1901-1953, 1978, 1988, Undated
Series 2 - Project Cirrus, 1943-1954, 1981, Undated
Subseries 1: Flight Data & Research, 1946-1953, Undated
Subseries 2: Subject Files, 1943-1953, 1981, Undated
Subseries 3: Reports & Publications, 1946-1954, Undated
Series 3 - Munitalp Foundation, 1940-1968, Undated
Subseries 1: General Research, 1948-1964, Undated
Subseries 2: Project Skyfire, 1940-1962, Undated
Subseries 3: Correspondence, 1950-1965, Undated
Subseries 4: Subject Files, 1948-1968, Undated
Subseries 5: Reports & Publications, 1952-1960, Undated
Series 4 - Consulting, 1950-1983, Undated
Subseries 1: Correspondence, 1950-1968, Undated
Subseries 2: Supplementary Materials, 1950-1983, Undated
Series 5 - Natural Sciences Institute, 1949-1990, Undated
Subseries 1: American Meteorological Society, 1949-1980, Undated
Subseries 2: Loomis School/NSI Administrative Files, 1958-1984, 1990, Undated
Subseries 3: Field Station Files, 1962-1968
Subseries 4: Student Papers & Notebooks, 1959-1973, Undated
Subseries 5: Reports & Publications, 1959-1978, Undated
Series 6 - Atmospheric Sciences Research Center, 1950-1993, Undated
Subseries 1: Administrative Files, 1954-1990, Undated
Subseries 2: Educational Activities, 1959-1992, Undated
Subseries 3: General Research, 1950-1993, Undated
Subseries 4: Desert Research Institute, 1953-1991, Undated
Subseries 5: Yellowstone Field Research Expeditions, 1961-1984, Undated
Subseries 6: Subject Files, 1953-1992, Undated
Subseries 7: Reports & Publications, 1948-1992, Undated
Subseries 8: Photographs, 1946-1988, Undated
Series 7 - The Institute on Man and Science, 1963-1991, Undated
Series 8 - Environmental Activism, 1926-1993, Undated
Subseries 1: Huyck Preserve, 1940-1988, Undated
Subseries 2: Mohonk, 1963-1993, Undated
Subseries 3: Great Flats Aquifer, 1971-1991, Undated
Subseries 4: Subject Files, 1926-1992, Undated
Subseries 5: Photographs, 1922-1986, Undated
Series 9 - Correspondence, 1922-1993, Undated
Subseries 1: General, 1923-1993, Undated
Subseries 2: By Topic, 1922-1993, Undated
Series 10 - A Field Guide to the Atmosphere, 1949-1992, Undated
Series 11 - Films, 1942-1971, Undated
Series 12 - Biographical/Background Materials, 1909-1993, Undated
Subseries 1: Personal Records, 1922-1993, Undated
Subseries 2: Dutch Barns, 1930-1993, Undated
Subseries 3: Local History and Archeology, 1909-1993, Undated

The overall arrangement of the Vincent Schaefer Papers is chronological in an attempt to show the order of his professional accomplishments. This arrangement, however, is not a perfect reflection of exact order because many of Schaefer's professional ventures crossed over with other projects. For example, he conducted independent consulting work while also involved with Munitalp and the Atmospheric Sciences Research Center, and his work with the Atmospheric Sciences Center for high school students began as an independent project at Connecticut's Loomis School before migrating with Schaefer to the New York State Teachers College (later the University at Albany).

Most of the files in the series and subseries of the Vincent Schaefer Papers are arranged in alphabetical order. Exceptions are the subseries that contain reports and publications, which are arranged chronologically. Documents published in the same time frame are in order alphabetically by title.

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Restrictions

Access

Access to this record group is mainly unrestricted with the exception of fourteen folders in Series #5, the Natural Sciences Institute, and two folders in Series #6, the Atmospheric Sciences Research Center. Researchers with inquiries about this material should contact the head of archives.

Copyright

The researcher assumes full responsibility for conforming with the laws of copyright. Whenever possible, the M.E. Grenander Department of Special Collections and Archives will provide information about copyright owners and other restrictions, but the legal determination ultimately rests with the researcher. Requests for permission to publish material from this collection should be discussed with the Head of Special Collections and Archives.

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Subject Headings

Persons

Blanchard, Duncan C.
Blodgett, Katharine
Crudge, Vernon
Day, John
Falconer, Raymond
Langmuir, Irving, 1881-1957
Maynard, Kiah
Schaefer, James
Schaefer, Katherine
Schaefer, Lois (Perret)
Schaefer, Susan
Schaefer, Vincent J.
Suits, C. Guy, (Chauncey Guy), 1905-1991
Vonnegut, Bernard
Whitney, Willis Rodney, 1868-1958

Corporate Bodies

Advance Cooler Manufacturing Corporation
Arthur D. Little, Inc.
Bechtel Power Corporation
Boeing Engineering and Construction Company
General Electric Company
Houghton, Mifflin and Company
Knolls Research Laboratory
Munitalp Foundation
Pacific Gas & Electric Company
State University of New York. Atmospheric Sciences Research Center
U.S. Army Signal Corp of Engineers
United States. Department of the Interior.

Associated Titles

A Field Guide to the Atmosphere
Adventures Ahead

Subjects

Aerosols-- adverse effects
Archeology
Cloud studies
Clouds-- dynamics
Consulting contracts
Dutch barns
Environmentalism
Formvar
Hurricane King-- 1947
Ice
Ice nuclei
Operation Red
Project Cirrus
Project Skyfire
Snowflakes
Solar energy
Supercooled clouds
Surface chemistry

Places

Albany (N.Y.)
Flagstaff (A.Z.)
Hokkaido (Japan)
Mount Greylock (Mass.)
Mount Washington (N.H.)
Mount Washington Observatory
Schenectady (N.Y.)
Yellowstone National Park

Genres and Forms

Administrative reports
Annual reports
Books
Charts
Correspondence
Glass plate negatives
Laboratory notebooks
Maps
Minutes
Newsletters
Newspaper clippings
Papers
Photographs

Administrative Information

Preferred Citation

Preferred citation for this material is as follows:

Identification of specific item, series, box, folder, Vincent J. Schaefer Papers, 1891-1993. M.E. Grenander Department of Special Collections and Archives, University Libraries, University at Albany, State University of New York (hereafter referred to as the Schaefer Papers).

Acquisition Information

All items in the Vincent J. Schaefer Papers were donated by Vincent Schaefer or his heirs to the University Libraries, M.E. Grenander Department of Special Collections and Archives, between 1979 and 1993.

Finding Aid Information

Created by: Kerry Lynch
Date: and#169; 2011 By the University at Albany, SUNY. All rights reserved.
Revision history: -

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Container List

Series 1: General Electric- Non-Project Cirrus, 1891-1993 21.0 cubic ft.
Arranged alphabetically, with the exception of the reports and publications which are chronological.
The research laboratory at General Electric was the launching pad for some of Vincent Schaefer’s most pivotal scientific work. This series contains research notes, photographs, reports (published and unpublished, internal and external), and correspondence relating to all of his more famous experiments as well as a range of lesser-known work accomplished during his years at the G.E. Research Laboratory in Schenectady. The materials cover topics such as smoke/artificial fog generation, surface chemistry, studies of ice and snow particles, and early cloud seeding. The series is divided according to areas of specific interest to Schaefer as well as correspondence and publications.
Researchers looking for information on Project Cirrus will want to refer to Series #2, which is devoted entirely to notes, reports, and photos on that endeavor. However, any material not clearly and specifically identified by Schaefer as being Project Cirrus-related was not housed in that series; therefore it is likely that some correspondence and reports in Series #1 are in fact based in Project Cirrus. Researchers are encouraged to utilize both Series #1 and #2 if their interest lies with that project. Also notable is the fact that Schaefer was assigned to spend 50% of his work time on Project Cirrus, so although he was involved with that project for about five years, he did spend half of his time working on other tasks at G.E.’s research laboratory.
Subseries 1: Ice and Snow Research, 1932-1979,, 1986,, Undated
Arranged alphabetically
The formation and behavior of snow and ice crystals were a lifelong interest of Schaefer’s, and in his time at General Electric he was able to focus on the subject during the World War II years as ice related to the safety of U.S. Air Force planes. Schaefer and Irving Langmuir’s interest in that topic grew as a result of their World War II-era contract work with the military, and the experiments they conducted after the war’s end led directly to their Project Cirrus contract in 1947—an undertaking so extensive that their work in that area merited its own series in this collection. Much of their foundational work in snow and ice composition and behavior was grounded in observations and experiments conducted on Mount Washington in New Hampshire. Schaefer discovered during this time that ice crystals and snowflakes could be captured and observed using Formvar plastic. Using this method, he documented very specific data about ice and snow before creating some of the first replicas of specific snowflake shapes. The work of Schaefer and his colleagues regarding ice research includes handwritten notes, drawings, charts, photographs, reports, and correspondence specific to ice, snow, and Mount Washington.
Box Folder
1 1 Adams, John Mead- Review of Work, Undated
2 Aeronautical Ice Research Laboratory Reports, 1946
3 Aircraft Deicing and Heat Pump Storage Systems, 1952
4 Altitude and Ice Formation, 1945
5 American Geophysical Union Committee on Snow, 1952
6 Anchor Ice Charts, May 1949
7 Antice 107- Letter From Princeton University, August 11, 1947
8 Antice 1001- Explanation and Efficiency Graph, Undated
9 Association for the Study of Snow and Ice, 1939
10 Autograph Book with Daily Notes from Ice Collection Experiments, January 1942
11 Barnes, H.T.- Film reviews, June 3, 1949
12 El Bastonero Newsletter, July/August 1942
13 "The Concentration of Ice Nuclei at the Summit of Mount Washington", c. 1952
14 Convent, Photos, 1945
15 Cooperative Snow Research Project, Letters, April/May 1945
16 Crystal Forms, Undated
17 "Crystal Soul of Grace"- Poem, James; R. Roberts, Undated
18 Data from Mount Washington Observatory, 1945
19 De-Icing and Crystals/Snowflakes- Article Drafts, Correspondence, Notes, and Conferences, 1947, Undated
20 Density Graphs, 1944
21 Detachment: Eighth Weather Squadron, Mount Washington Observatory- Report to Commanding General, February 27, 1946
22 Draft: Report of Panel on Fundamental Problems (Subcommittee on Icing Problems), Undated
23 Eastern Snow Conference, 1946, 1950, 1954
24 Electron Microscope Images of Snowflake Replicas, 1985
25 Equipment Photos and Data, 1944, Undated
26 Essay on Snow (Untitled Manuscript), Undated
27 Final Report on Icing Research up to July 1, 1945, October 1945
28 Final Report on Icing Research up to July 1, 1946, August 8, 1946
29 Florek, Forian- Snowflake Replicas, 1944
30 "For the First Time, Snowflakes are Made to Order," Popular Science Monthly, Vol. 120, January 1932
31 Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, WI- Relative Humidity of Saturated Salt Solutions at Different Temperatures, May 5, 1940
32 Formvar, 1945-1947
33 Formvar, 1948, 1951
34 Formvar Article: Schenectady Works News, December 29, 1944
35 Freezing Level, Impact on Precipitation, letter, January 14, 1948
36 General Electric Review Article, 1941, Undated
37 Harvard-Mount Washington Icing Research Report 1946-1947, Chapter 1, June 22, 1948
38 Harvard-Mount Washington Icing Research Report 1946-1947, Chapter 2, June 22, 1948
39 Harvard-Mount Washington Icing Research Report 1946-1947, Chapter 3, June 22, 1948
40 Harvard-Mount Washington Icing Research Report 1946-1947, Chapter 4-5, June 22, 1948
41 High Altitude Data, 1947
42 Howell, Wallace E.- Correspondence and Research Notes, 1948-1950
43 Ice and Crystal Data, 1949, 1950
44 Ice and Rime Studies, 1952
45 Ice Crystals and Nuclei, 1948-1953
46 Ice Crystals- "Figure 5 Originals", Undated
47 Ice Crystals- "Figure 11 Originals", Undated
48 Ice Deposits, Undated
49 Ice Fogs Feature in Research for Industry Stanford News Bulletin, July 1953
50 Icing and Precipitation Static Reports- Index, Undated
51 Icing and Precipitation Static Reports, Book 1/Report 1, 1944, Undated
52 Icing and Precipitation Static Reports, Book 1/Report 2, 1944, Undated
53 Icing and Precipitation Static Reports, Book 1/Report 3, Undated
54 Icing and Precipitation Static Reports, Book 1/Report 4, 1944, Undated
55 Icing and Precipitation Static Reports, Book 1/Report 5, 1944, Undated
56 Icing and Precipitation Static Reports, Book 1/Report 6, 1944, Undated
57 Icing Experiments, 1945
58 Icing Nomenclature- Section XXVII of Unidentified Larger Document, Author Unidentified, Undated
59 Icing Problems: International Civil American Organization, March/September 1950
60 Icing Report by University of California, 1946
61 Icing Research, May-September 1946
62 Icing Research- Correspondence, Drawings, Photos, April 1944-March 1945
63 Icing Research- Correspondence, April-December 1945
64 Icing Research- Correspondence, 1945, 1950, 1951, 1953
65 Icing Research- Correspondence, January-May 1946
Box Folder
2 1 Icing Research- Correspondence, October 1946- March 1947
2 Icing Research- Correspondence, April 1947-September 1948
3-4 Icing Research: Germany and Czechoslovakia, Rare Reports from the Era of WWII, with Later Explanatory Note by Schaefer, 1943-1945, 1987
5 Icing Research: Helicopter Blades & Airfoils, May/June 1945, Undated
6 Icing Research instruments: Letter to C.G. Suits from Schaefer, Undated
7 Icing Research Reports- Air Technical Service Command and M.I.T, 1945, 1946
8 Icing Research Reports- Procedure Reminds, Observation Methods, Status Reports, and Helicopter Blade Tests, 1945
9-10 Japanese Research on Snow and Ice, 1934-1936, 1940
11 The Journal of Glaciology, January 1947
12 Letter to Schaefer Regarding Returned Photos from Mount Washington Newsletter(photos included), 1944-1945, September 11, 1953
13 Micrographia by Robert Hooke, Undated
14 Minutes of Meeting Regarding Icing Research at Mount Washington, June 19, 1945-June 21, 1945
15 M.I.T De-Icing Lab data from B. Vonnegut, April 25, 1945
16 M.I.T De-Icing Lab Photos and Data, December 22, 1943
17 Morgan, W.D.- Correspondence, August 1941
18 Mount Washington Observatory: Atmospheric Phenomena, Undated
19 Mount Washington Observatory: Background Brochure, 1950
20 Mount Washington Observatory : Changes to By-Laws, 1948
21 Mount Washington Observatory: Clark, Victor F.- Letter, 1944
22 Mount Washington Observatory: Contribution to the Theory of the Constitution of Clouds, January 20, 1949, April 20, 1949
23 Mount Washington Observatory: Contribution to the Theory of the Constitution of Clouds, July 20, 1949
24 Mount Washington Observatory: Contribution to the Theory of the Constitution of Clouds, October 20, 1949
25 Mount Washington Observatory: Contribution to the Theory of the Constitution of Clouds, January 31, 1950
26 Mount Washington Observatory: Contribution to the Theory of the Constitution of Clouds, April 30, 1950
27 Mount Washington Observatory: Contribution to the Theory of the Constitution of Clouds, July 31, 1950
28 Mount Washington Observatory: Contribution to the Theory of the Constitution of Clouds, April 23, 1951
29 Mount Washington: "Contributions to the Theory of the Constitution of Clouds" by the staff of the Observatory, October 23, 1951
30 Mount Washington Observatory: Correspondence, 1944-1945
31 Mount Washington Observatory: Correspondence, 1948
32 Mount Washington Observatory: Correspondence, 1953-1954
33 Mount Washington Observatory: Correspondence re: Pilots, January 1945-May 1945
34 Mount Washington Observatory: Cottage on Mount Washington, Undated
35 Mount Washington Observatory: Eighth Weather Squadron, 1946
36 "Mount Washington Observatory for Field Research ", Manuscript, 1953
37 Mount Washington Observatory- Helicopter Main Rotor Blades and Icing Issues, May-June 1945
38 Mount Washington Observatory: Icing Conditions at Airports, 1946
39 Mount Washington Observatory: Icing Data, January 1945-March 1945
40 Mount Washington Observatory: Icing Data, April 1945-May 1945
41 Mount Washington Observatory: Icing Data, June 1945-September 1945
42 Mount Washington Observatory: Icing Data, October 1945-December 1945
43 Mount Washington Observatory: Icing Data, January 1946-May 1946
44 Mount Washington Observatory: Icing Data- Supplement to 5/45 Icing Report (Statistical Analysis), May 1945
45 Mount Washington Observatory: Icing Instruments Final Report by W.E. Howell, July 15, 1945
46 Mount Washington Observatory: Icing Research Articles (W.E. Howell), 1946
47 Mount Washington Observatory: Icing Research Project with Harvard University, 1946
48 Mount Washington Observatory: Icing Studies, 1945-1949
49 Mount Washington Observatory: Icing Tests of Model XFD-1 Airplane, 1948
50 Mount Washington Observatory: Insect Specimens, 1946
51 Mount Washington Observatory: Maps, Photographs, Brochures, 1948-1954
Oversized
4 Mount Washington Observatory: Mini notebook set, 1940s
Box Folder
2 52 Mount Washington Observatory: New Test Facility, letter, May 24, 1951
53 Mount Washington Observatory News Bulletin, 1941-1960
Box Folder
3 1 Mount Washington Observatory News Bulletin (Not Continuous), 1960-1967
2 Mount Washington Observatory News Bulletin with letter, Fall 1985
3 Mount Washington Observatory: Nuclei Data Sheets, 1952
4 Mount Washington Observatory: Nuclei Data Sheets, 1953
5 Mount Washington Observatory: Nuclei Data Sheets, 1954
6 Mount Washington Observatory: Postcard to Lois Schaefer, 1943
7 Mount Washington Observatory: "Preliminary Report", April 1947
8 Mount Washington Observatory: Research Notes, 1944
9 Mount Washington Observatory: Research Proposals 1-63, Undated
10 Mount Washington Observatory: "Research Studies at Mount Washington Observatory", c. 1970s
11 Mount Washington: Reunion of Former Observers, 1979
12 Mount Washington Observatory: Rime Collection Studies, 1939
13 Mount Washington Observatory: Snow Measurement, 1943
14 Mount Washington Observatory: Sublimation Nuclei Project Cirrus, 1948-1950
15 Mount Washington Observatory: Trace coat Calibrations, Undated
16 Mount Washington Observatory: "Visibility and Water Content in Clouds"(H.J. Aufm Kampe), September 1946
17 Mount Washington Observatory: "A Visit to the Mount Washington Observatory with Langmuir", Undated
18 Mount Washington Observatory: Volt-Ampere Charts, Undated
19 Mount Washington Observatory: Weather guides and photos of instruments, 1936-1945
20 Mount Washington Observatory: Wind Research-Diary, 1944
21 National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, Icing Research: Correspondence, Reports, Charts, 1947-1951
22 Nevada Cooperative Snow Surveys, 1944-1946
23 National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics- Letter to I. Langmuir with Report from Conference on Aircraft Ice Prevention, June 1947, October 6, 1947
24 National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics- Subcommittee on Icing Problems, Member Lists and Responsibilities, December 31, 1948, January 1, 1949
25 National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics- Technical Report: "The Design, Operation and Uses of the Water Channel as an Instrument for Investigation of Compressible- Flow Phenomena", January 1950
26 Newspaper Clippings, 1941-1945
27 Notes and Formulas- Ice Crystals, Undated
28 Photo: Aerial View of Mount Washington, c. 1940s
29 Photo: Ice Crystals- Microscopic View, Undated
30 Photo: Gage Towers, Undated
31 Photo: Graph- "Types of Frozen Precipitation", October 17, 1949
32 Photo: Mount Washington Research Unit, United States Air Force, Undated
33 Photo: Rime Deposits, 1944
34 Photo: Rotating Multi-Cylinder with Ice, February 16, 1945
35 Photo: Schaefer in Laboratory, Undated
36 Photo: Schaefer Looking at Plate of Casts Through Microscopes, G.E. Research Lab, Undated
37 Photo: Schaefer Preserving Snowflakes- Flakes Included with Picture, Undated
38 Photo: Shrinking Snow in Stages, February 20, 1946-February 28, 1946
39 Photo: Star of Brighton, Undated
40 Photo: Unidentified Man with Ice Chunks (possibly Robert Smith-Johannsen), Undated
Oversized Folder
4 1 Photo: Unidentified, Possibly Microscopic View of Crystal Cross-Section, Undated
Box Folder
3 41 Photo Negatives: Electrical Properties of Snow, 1943-1944
42 Photo Negatives: Frost Crystals and Replicas, 1941, Undated
43 Photo Negatives: German Water Droplet Charts, Undated
44 Photo Negatives: Glacial Ice, Undated
45 Photo Negatives: Hailstones, Undated
46 Photo Negatives: Ice Nucleus Detection, Undated
47 Photo Negatives: Ice Replicas, 1946
48 Photo Negatives: Ice Storm, 1946
49 Photo Negatives: Mount Washington Observatory, 1943-1944
50 Photo Negatives: Mount Washington Observatory, 1945-1948
51 Photo Negatives: Mount Washington Observatory, Undated
52 Photo Negatives: Sea Ice ( Negatives show text, not pictures), Undated
53 Photo Negatives: Snow Crystals, Undated
54 Photo Negatives: Snow experiments, 1947
55 Photo Negatives: Snowflake replicas, 1944-1946
56 Photo Negatives: Snowflakes, 1944
57 Photo Negatives: Sublimed Snow, February 26, 1946
58 Photos: Corn Snow at Granular Level, Undated
59 Photos: Damaged Aircraft, Undated
60 Photos: Electric Charge on Snow, Undated
61 Photos: Frazil Ice, Undated
62 Photos: Frost Crystal Replicas, Undated
63 Photos: Ice (General), 1945
64 Photos: Icing Experiments, 1942-1945
65-66 Photos: Individually Labeled Packets, 1945
67 Photos; Measuring Devices, Undated
68 Photos: Mount Washington Observatory, 1943-1948, Undated
69 Photos: Outdoor Snow Scenes, Undated
70 Photos: Schaefer Studying Snowflakes, c. 1942
71 Photos: Sleet Particles, Magnified, Undated
72 Photos: Sleet Replicas- Transparent form, Undated
73 Photos: Snow and Snow Scenes, 1949, Undated
74 Photos: Snow Crystals, Undated
75 Photos: Snowflake Replicas, 1941, Undated
76 Photos: Snowflakes, 1949-1961
77-79 Photos: Snowflakes and Snowflake Replicas, 1940s-1960s
Box Folder
4 1-7 Photos: Snowflakes and Snowflake Replicas, 1940s-1960s
8 Photos: Supercooled Clouds, Various Locations Including Mount Washington, Undated
9 Photos: Tug Hill Observations (Livingston Lansing), Undated
10 Photos: Winter Scenes, Undated
11 Precipitation static, 1943-1944
12 Presentation Planning- Preliminary Notes, Undated
13 Press Release: Snowflakes and Static Electricity, June 1946
14 Princeton University De-icing Data With Letter, August 1947, January 26, 1948
15 Propeller Tests- Icing on Blades, April 1946
16 Publication Rights Request, August 26, 1986
17 "Research Studies at the Mount Washington Observatory"- How General Electric Came to Mount Washington, With Photos, 1944, Undated
18 Rime and Icelac- Photos, Notes/Formulas, Charts, 1944-1945, Undated
19 Snow and Ice Classification, 1948-1954
20 Snow and Glaciers, International Commission and U. Nakaya, 1945-1948
21-22 Snow and Ice, International Commission, August 1946-June 1953
23 Snow Cover Chart, Undated
24 Snow Crystal Charts and Electrical Properties of Snow, 1944-1949, Undated
25 Snow Crystal Correspondence, 1950, 1956, 1970
26 Snow Crystal Formations, 1942
27 Snow Crystal Illustrations, Rutland, Vermont, March 1948
28 Snow Crystal Notes, Undated
29 Snow Crystal Survey- December and January Reports, Undated
30 Snow/Electricity request for Information, February 27, 1947
31 Snow, Ice and Permafrost Report, 1949
32 Snow Making in the Pocono Mountains, December 31, 1950
33 Snow Research: Correspondence, Photocopied articles, Supply orders, Notes, 1945-1949
34-39 Snow Research: Laboratory at Schenectady, 1944
40 Snow Research Reports, 1944
41 Snow Research : Storm Data, 1944
42 Snow Storm Survey, 1945-1946
43 Snow Storm Survey Notebook, c. 1949
44 Snow Survey, New York, March 1948
45 Snowfall Data, 1946-1947
46 Snowfall Data, Shattuck Observatory, NH, 1867-1949, 1950, Undated
47 Snowflake Catalog, February 1941-March 1941
48 Snowflake Distribution Graphs, Undated
49 Snowflake Model for Schools, 1946
50 Snowflake Photo Requests, Undated
51 "Snowflake Photography" by V. Schaefer, c. 1942
52 Snowflake Preservation and Replica Correspondence, especially with Natural History Magazine, 1941-1943
53 Snowflake Preservation Poster, Undated
54-55 Snowflake Replicas, 1940s, 1957
56 "Snowflakes" (Minicam Photography), c. 1945
57 Snowflakes and Ice Crystals: Note, Graphs, Photos, 1943-1950
58-59 Snowflakes Captured on Cardboard, 1945, Undated
60 Snow Making for Movie Production, 1948
61-62 Special Icing Observations at Mount Washington Observatory, 1945
63 Types of Frozen Precipitation, 1943, 1947, Undated
64 University of Michigan Engineering Research Institute- Work Report to Wright Air Development Center, U.S. Air Force, April 1952
65 University of Michigan Icing Research Project, 1952-1953
66 Vortex Ice Generator, 1947
67 Western Snow Conference: The Snow Surveyors' Forum, 1950
68 Winter Magic (Proposed book by Schaefer), October 8, 1946
Subseries 2: Cloud Seeding and Weather Modification, 1932-1957, , Undated
Arranged alphabetically
The inspiration for Schaefer’s work with cloud seeding began during his experiments with Irving Langmuir during World War II. At that time they were under contract with the military for other weather-related reasons, but their research led them to wonder about the possibilities of controlling weather beyond military needs. Schaefer accomplished some of his most important foundational work with cloud seeding in 1946, before General Electric joined in another contract with the U.S. Navy, Air Force, and Army Signal Corps. These records document some of Schaefer’s initial work with cloud seeding, before the official birth of Project Cirrus. Researchers will also find about a dozen files on Project Blowdown, a cloud seeding operation conducted in Honduras to aid the United Fruit Company.
Box Folder
5 1 Advisory Committee on Weather Control, 1953-1954
2 Advisory Committee on Weather Control- Correspondence, 1955
3 Advisory Committee on Weather Control- Correspondence, 1956, Undated
4 Advisory Committee on Weather Control- Correspondence, 1957
5 Advisory Committee on Weather Control- Reports, 1954
6 Anderson, Clinton P.- Weather Control Bill (with article by Schaefer), 1950
7 Cloud Code Chart, 1949
8 Cloud Droplet Research, Booted Cylinder, Negatives, 1945
9 Cloud Meter, 1945-1946
10 Cloud Seeding Advice to W.D. Williams, El Paso, Texas, July 17, 1947
11 Cloud Seeding and Snow Data with Illustrations, Undated
12 Cloud Seeding by Others: Arizona, 1948
13 Cloud Seeding by Others: Around the United States, 1950-1952
14-15 Cloud Seeding by Others: Australia, 1946-1947, 1951
16 Cloud Seeding by Others: Bolivia (Montreal Engineering Co., LTD., 1951
17-22 Cloud Seeding by Others: Bonneville Power Administration (evaluations), 1950-1952
23 Cloud Seeding by Others: California, with photos, 1948
24 Cloud seeding by Others: Clippings, June 1947-July 1947
25 Cloud Seeding by Others: Colorado, c. 1952
26 Cloud Seeding by Others: Gathman, Louis- "Rain Produced at Will", Undated
27 Cloud Seeding by Others: Mexico, 1947, 1950-1951
28 Cloud Seeding by Others: Montana and Washington, 1952
29 Cloud Seeding by Others: New York City, 1949
30 Cloud Seeding by Other: Oregon, Photo, April 4, 1947
31 Cloud Seeding by Others: Philippines, 1947-1948, Undated
32 Cloud Seeding by Others: South Dakota, June 13, 1953
33 Cloud Seeding by Others: Statistical Evaluation, U.S. Department of Agriculture, October 30, 1952
34 Cloud Seeding Data- Air Expansion and Ice, 1951, Undated
35 Cloud Seeding Data- W.E. Howell to V. Schaefer, April 1950-November 1950, February 12, 1953
36 Cloud Seeding: Newspaper Articles by Schaefer, September 1953
37 Cloud Seeding- Post Project Cirrus: Trip to Norway (Newspaper articles in Norwegian), 1952-1954, October 1952
38 Cloud Slides with Letter, Idaho and Montana, 1953-1954
39 Cloud Stereos, Negatives, 1944
40 Clouds: Device for Measuring Liquid Water Content, January 29, 1945
41 Codes for Cloud Forms and States of the Sky, 1938
42 Congressional Bill (H.R. 4582) on Chief of Weather Bureau Conducting rainfall experiments, November 25, 1947, February 27, 1948
43 Congressional Bill (S. 2225) "To Create a Committee to Study and Evaluate Public and Private Experiments in Weather Modification", October 1951
44 Congressional Bill (S.285) on Weather Control, August 13, 1953
45 Congressional Hearings on Weather Control, 1951
46 Congressional Testimony on Weather Control by D.E. Chambers, March 16, 1948
47 Diagrams: Potential Seeding Operations, February 6, 1947
48 Dyed Data, Undated
49 First Cloud Seeding Flight- Temperature Record, November 13, 1946
50 Gardner, Jr., C.- Articles on Rain Making (Staff Member for Senator Francis Case), 1951, Undated
51 Governmental Affairs Legislative Daily- Blurb about Control of Rain Making, March 16, 1951
52 "House Bill No.66" Re: Weather Modification, April 1951
53 Langmuir, Irving: Periodicities in Seeding, Schedules, 1952
54 Langmuir, Irving: Rainfall Data, 1950
55 Langmuir, Irving: Socorro, NM- Average Rainfall Distribution, 1950
56 Legislation and Testimony Regarding Weather Control, 1951
57 Map: Storm Track and Origin of Air Masses, January 30, 1946
58 Memorandum on Introduction of Ice Nuclei into Clouds- Irving Langmuir (with related notes), August 16, 1946
59 National Weather Improvement Association, 1952
60 "New Flights Confirm Artificial Snow Production"-GE Press Release, 1946
61 Operation B (Multiple Plan Operation), Undated
62 "Cloud Seeding in Cold Chamber. Schaefer, Langmuir and Vonnegut", c.1946
63 Photo: Montana Thunder Cloud, Undated
64 Photo: Woman Reading "Snowstorm Manufactured" Article from Boston Globe, c. November 1946
65 Photo Negatives: Cloud Box Experiments, Undated
66-68 Photo Negatives: Cloud Formations, 1942
69 Photo Negatives: Cloud Formations, Undated
70 Photo Negatives: Clouds at Woestyne South, October 22, 1945
71 Photo Negatives: Conversion of Super Cooled Ground Fog to Snow, Undated
72 Photos: Aerial Shots- Clouds, Undated
73 Photos: Cloud Chamber Work, 1952, Undated
74 Photos: Cloud Formations, 1948-1950, Undated
75 Photos: Cloud Formations, Undated
76 Photos: Clouds- Montana, Oregon, and Unidentified, Undated
Box Folder
6 1 Photos: Dry Ice Experiments at General Electric, c.1946
2 Photos: First Cloud Seeding Flight, November 13, 1946
3 Photos: Schaefer and Bernard Vonnegut at Work with Cloud Chamber, c.1946, 1947
4 Second Dry Ice Seeding Near Saratoga Lake Photos, December 20, 1946
5 Physics of Clouds, 1945-1948
6 Poster Mock-up: "I.A.S. Present Mr. Vincent J. Schaefer…", Undated
7 Priest River Forest Experimental Station- Climatological Summary, 1932
8 Radio Appearances by Schaefer on Snowmaking, November 1946, Undated
9 "The Scribble- In Book" with Assorted Cloud photos, Undated
10 Short Report on Dry Ice Properties, Author Unidentified, Undated
11 Statements on Weather Modification (Assorted Contributions), 1951
12 Statement on Weather Modification Possibilities, June 8, 1951
13 Stokes Law Graph: Falling Cloud Droplets, Undated
14 Suggestions for Cloud Studies to Establish Importance of Artificial Seeding Operations in a particular Area, May 11, 1951
15 Super Cooled Cloud, Method for Producing Spiral Vortex, Undated
16 Thunderstorm Formation, Undated
17 U.S. Senate Bills on Weather Modification, 1951
18 Weather control: Arthur Godfrey humor, July 29, 1947
19 Weather Control: Bills and Correspondence, 1951, 1953
20 Weather Control: Newspaper Clippings, 1953-1959
21 Weather Control: Research and Development Board Meeting, June 12, 1951
22 Weather Observations, 1942-1944
23 Weather Research: Project Outlines, Graphs, Experimental Weather Forecasts (Schaefer and Falconer), 1951-1953
Subseries 3: General Research, 1922-1954, , 1970-1971, , Undated
Arranged alphabetically
This subseries is comprised of various research data retained by Schaefer that were not filed specifically with cloud seeding or ice and snow research. These are the notes, graphs, drawings, and photographs of experiments that supported later discoveries in his larger projects. Notes and photos in this subseries include subjects such as surface tension, monomolecular layers, smoke generation, fog, uses of calgon, and electron microscopy. Also of note are his observations on precipitation and precipitation static, which he worked on with Irving Langmuir during World War II. While the bulk of the notes are Schaefer’s own, there are also papers that belonged to Langmuir and various other scientists who shared observations with Schaefer.
Box Folder
7 1 Absorbing Membranes- Notes, Graphs, Correspondence, Photos, 1944-1945
2 Acid Values, Solar Radiation, etc., 1936-1938
3 Atmospheric Electricity Observations, 1944-1945
4 Atmospheric Electricity- Mount Washington, Collector Tapes, February 1944
5 Atmospheric Electricity, Mount Washington- Blowing Snow: Cross Current Storm with Arrival of Cold Front/Mount Washington, Cross Current Storm, Schenectady, Collector Tapes, March 1944
6 Atmospheric Electricity, Types of Clear Weather Currents, Collector Tapes, March 1944
7 Atmospheric Electricity- Overcast- Comparison of cc and cp Collector Tapes, March 30, 1944-March 31, 1944
8 Atmospheric Electricity: Tapes of Rain, Sleet, and Brief Snow Showers, Collector Tapes, 1944
9 Atmospheric Electricity- Snow Lab, Schenectady, Woestyne- Schonwee, Collector Tapes, June 10, 1944
10 Atmospheric Electricity: Rainstorm - No Thunder or Lightening Synchronous Electrical Measurements, Rain Traces, Collector Tapes and Photographs, June 10, 1944
11 Atmospheric Electricity: Measurements of Flow of Electricity to Ground During Heavy Rainstorms Accompanied by Lightning , Collector Tapes, June 15, 1944-June 16, 1944
12 Atmospheric Electricity- Ordinary Type Thunderstorm Mohawk Valley, Schenectady NY, Moderate- Heavy Rain, Collector Tapes, June 19, 1944
13 Atmospheric Electricity- Traces of Drizzle, Heavy Rain Showers, End of Heavy Thunderstorm, Collector Tapes, June 19, 1944
14 Atmospheric Electricity- Violent Type Thunderstorm, Rain Cloud burst Proportions, Woestyne Station, Collector Tapes, June 19, 1944
15 Atmospheric Electricity- Drizzle, Positive Type Rain, Collector Tapes, Undated
16 Atmospheric Electricity- Rain Storm, Very Little Thunder, Heavy Rain to Light Mist, Anomalous High Frequency Effect, Collector Tapes, June 20, 1944
17 Atmospheric Electricity- Thunderstorm with Hail Showing Effect of Distant Storms, July 4, 1944
18 Atmospheric Electricity- Thunderstorms, Schenectady, Mount Washington Collector Tapes, June 6, 1944
19 Atmospheric Electricity- Thunderstorm, No Rain Collector Tapes, July 1944-September 1944
20 Atmospheric Electricity- Wet Snow Storm Collection Tape, November 18, 1944
21 Atmospheric Oscillations- Proposal for a Study, Undated
22 Badily Ridge/ Looking Glass Summit- Weather Observations and Map, August 1, 1948
23 Barium Stearic Acid, 1937
24 C23 Acid Data, c. 1940
25 Calculation of Light Scattering by Smoke Particles, 1942-1943
Artifact-Box
1 Calibrated Filters (Blodgett) and Snow Replica Slides (Schaefer), September 9, 1943, Undated
Box Folder
7 26 Cannon Mountain - Weather Observations, 1943-1944
27 Capacitor Calculations, November 25, 1947
28 Coil Frosting Rates, 1947
29 Cold Chamber: Diagram with Photo Negatives, Undated
30 Chemical Lists- Prior to 1950 and Prior to 1954, c. 1954
31 Cholesterol/Epicholesterol Notes, Drawings, Undated
32 Cold Chamber: Equipment List, Undated
33 Cold Chamber: Graphs, Undated
34 Cold Chamber: Sublimation Nuclei Detection, Undated
35 Cold Chamber: Temperatures During Benzene Run, Undated
36 Condensation Notes with Drawings, Undated
37 Condensation Nuclei Notes- Incomplete, Undated
38 Condensation Nuclei Symposium, November 7, 1954
39 Construction Details- Trace Coat Tape Recorder, April 1945
40 Crystal Deposits on Plastic, c. 1942
41 Crystal Deposits- Unidentified, 1945
42 Crystal Growth Report- Central Engineering Plant, Dept. of Research, August 15, 1946
43 Cycol Theory of Protean Structure/ Mechanisms of Lubrication, 1949, Undated
44-45 Cytological Research, 1933
46 Daily Temperatures (Location Unknown), 1952
47 Deposition Rates, c. 1939-1940
48 Diamond Dust- Observations, Undated
49 Diffusion Rates of H2O from Clean H20 Surface, 1940, 1945, Undated
50 Di-N-Propyl Sebacate- Synthesis, May 29, 1940
51 Electric Hygrometer Development Report with Letter, November 28, 1944, April 23, 1945
52 Electrometer Illustrations with Notes, January 1949, November 1949
53 Electron Microscopy: Magnified Crystals Images, Undated
54 Electron Microscopy: Magnified Images, Undated
55 Electron Microscopy: Photomicrographs, Undated
56 Electron Microscopy: Photomicrographs with Notes, 1939-1941, Undated
57 Electron Microscopy: "Replica Technique and Metallographic Presentation for the Electron Microscope" with Images, 1944
58 Enlarger- Diagrams and Notes, June 9, 1943, Undated
59 Evaporation Rates and Surface Films, 1940
60 Evaporation Rates: Data on Dehydrating Materials, 1939-1940, Undated
61 Evaporation Studies, c. 1950-1970
62 Evaporation Through Surface Films, 1940
63 Experiment Using Photographic Plates, Instructions, Undated
64 Experiments with Color Photography- Photos and Notes, 1945
65 "Experimental 30-Day Forecasts, June 1953-September 1953
66 "Experimental 30-Day Forecast for the Albany-Schenectady Area" R. Falconer, July 1953
67 Filter Data, 1941
68 Fluxometer Theory, November 13, 1940
69 Fog Dispersal Studies, 1943-1952
70 Fog Dispersal Studies, 1946
71 Forest Fire Data- Coconino Forest, Undated
72 Friction Studies, 1934
73 General Experiments, 1941, 1944-1945, 1950, 1952, Undated
74 General Notes: Weather Observations and Contract with Navy, 1946
75 Glass Filter Research, c. 1940
76 Graph: Time Changes in Smoke in a Vessel of Volume V, Undated
77 Gregg, Arthur- Research Notes, 1940-1942
78 H2O Vapor- Data and Drawings, 1947-1948, Undated
79 Hail Report- Flight Research Division, NACA, February 1951
80 Halo Measurement, January 10, 1943
81 Hand Unit Nuclei Counter, April 7, 1949
82 Hartford, CT- Weather Conditions, June 5, 1949, June 6, 1949
83 Heat Pump Defrosting Studies, 1951-1952
84 Hydrology and Related Matters, Undated
85 Hypsometer Study, 1948
86 Index Card File- Scientific Notes and Contacts, 1951-1956, Undated
87 Index to Schaefer's General Electric Research Notebooks, c. 1954
88 Iron Particles, Nucleation and Growth of During Electrode Position into Mercury Cathodes, Summer 1953
89 Jet Stream: Black Sheep Project, Technical Note #4, September 9, 1954
90 Jet Stream: Map- Tornadoes, Undated
91 Jet Stream: Schaefer's Observational Data, June 21, 1950, Undated
92 Jet Stream: United States Maps, March 1953-September 1953
93 Jet Stream: United States Maps (Conic Projection), January 1, 1953-March 14, 1953
94 Jet Stream: United States Maps, June 1953-November 1953
95 Kansas and Wyoming Projects, 1948, 1952, Undated
96 Laboratory Notes and Graph, 1934, 1935, Undated
97 Light Spectra Images, Undated
98 Liquid Oil Fog Generator- Notes and Drawings, Undated
99 "Match Angle Data- Absolute Thickness of Monolayer's Considering n." From Data Supplied by Dr. K.B. Blodgett,
100 Meteorological Records- Monthly Meteorological Summaries, U.S. Dept. of Commerce Weather Bureau, 1946
101 Methods of Dissipating Supercooled Clouds in the Natural Atmosphere- Notes and Formulas, Undated
102 Molar Equivalents per 1/2 Liter of H2O, Undated
103 Monolayer Graphs, Undated
104 Monomolecular Firms: Calgon, 1936
105 Monomolecular Firms: Calgon, 1936-1937
Box Folder
8 1 Monomolecular Films: Calgon, 1937
2 Monomolecular Films: Electrical Tests of Monomolecular Firms with Ionized Gaseous Electrode, GE Engineering Laboratory, February 1938
3 Monomolecular Films: Lubrication/Viscosity, 1934-1935
4 Monomolecular Films: Microanalysis, April 1937
5 Monomolecular Films: Properties, 1939
6 Monomolecular Films: Protein Films, 1939-1940
7 Monomolecular Firms: Protein Monolayer Viscosity, 1937
8 Monomolecular Films: Proteins, Monolayers, and the Tobacco Mosaic Virus, 1933-1937
9 Monomolecular Films: Temperature Measurements with Assorted Reports by Non- G.E. Workers, 1940-1941
10 Monomolecular Films: Thin Films, 1941
11-12 Monomolecular Films: Thin Film Studies, 1938-1942
13 Molecular Films: The Films- Spectrophometer Curves Transmission- Reflection Characteristics, 1939-1940
14 Monomolecular Films: Torsion and Viscosity Tables and Formulae, 1937-1938
15 Monomolecular Films: Torsion Data and Slides, Bearings, 1934-1936
16 Navy versus Air Force Bombers- Comparison, May 16, 1953
17 Nucleonic Project, May 24, 1946
18 Odor Performance of Aluminum Surfaces, 1952
19 Oil on Water, 1948
20 Organic Chemistry Notes (and other), Undated
21 OTK Sprinkler, 1952-1953
22 Output Steam Generator Measurements, September 20, 1949
23 Oxygen in the Atmosphere, 1950
24 Parallel Tube Collimator, 1944-1945
25 Particle Studies, Undated
26 Pepsin Studies, c. 1936-1937
27 Perfuorodecanoic Acid, c. 1940s
28 Permafrost Research, Undated
29-30 Permeability of Combination Films, Fatty Acids, and Cholesterol, 1940
31 PH Charts, Undated
32 Photos: Artificial Fog Testing, June 24, 1942
33 Photo: Capped Hexagonal Column, Undated
34 Photo: Electron Micrograph Cross Section, Barium Behenate and Barium Palmitate, Undated
35 Photo: Fog Generator, Undated
36 Photo: Langmuir, I., C.G. Suits and W.D. Coolidge at Vrooman's Nose- Smoke Generator Tests, June 1942
37 Photo: Lightning Bolts, with Loan Note re: Ed Evans, Undated
38 Photo: Lightning Strikes over Priest Lake, Undated
39 Photo: Schaefer, Langmuir and Robert Smith- Johansen watch Katharine Blodgett at work, Undated
40 Photo: Schaefer's desk at General Electric, Schaefer at work, 1942
41 Photo Negatives: Adirondacks, 1927-1939, Undated
42 Photo Negatives: Airborne Particles, Undated
43 Photo Negatives: Aluminum and Copper Replicas, Undated
44 Photo Negatives: Bubble Trajectory and Camera Spheres, 1951, Undated
45 Photo Negatives: Cartoons, Undated
46 Photo Negatives: Cold Chamber Diffusion, Undated
47 Photo Negatives: Crystals- Velocity of Fall and Charge, Undated
48 Photo Negatives: Effect of Dissolved Salts on Expansion Patterns, Undated
49 Photo Negatives: Elk Mountain, Wyoming, Undated
50 Photo Negatives: Expansion Patterns of Proteins, Undated
51 Photo Negatives: Fiber Cellulose, Undated
52 Photo Negatives: Fog Particles and Generation, 1943, Undated
53 Photo Negatives: Formation of Expansion Patterns, Undated
54 Photo Negatives: General Lab Experiments, Undated
55 Photo Negatives: Lab Apparatus, 1945
56 Photo Negatives: Large Particle Sampling, Undated
57 Photo Negatives: Leaf Replicas, Undated
58 Photo Negatives: Macro Experiments, 1943
59 Photo Negatives: Quartz Replicas, Undated
60 Photo Negatives: "SC PVA", Undated
61 Photo Negatives: Scientific Adventures, 1952
62-65 Photo Negatives: Smoke Generation, 1942
66 Photo Negatives: Smoke Generation, 1942-1944
67-68 Photo Negatives: Smoke Generation, Vrooman's Nose, 1942
69 Photo Negatives: Smoke Screen Tests, September 22, 1941
70 Photo Negatives: Spontaneous Ignition, December 1943
71 Photo Negatives: Sooted Slides, December 31, 1943
72 Photo Negatives: Steam Jet, December 16, 1943
73 Photo Negatives: Supercooled Solutions, Undated
74 Photo Negatives: Vrooman's Nose, June 24, 1942
75 Photo Slides: Grand Canyon Expedition, 1949-1950
76 Photocopied Images: Schaefer at Work in Research Lab and with Colleagues, 1922-1954
77 Photocopied Images: Snowflake Patterns, Creating Replicas, 1946, Undated
78 Photo micrographic Equipment- Lists and Drawings,
79 Photos: Crystals from Cold Chamber, Undated
80 Photos: Crystals, Magnified, 1944, Undated
Box Folder
9 1 Photos: Crystals, Magnified, Undated
2 Photos: Diatoms, Undated
3 Photos: Eclipse of the Moon, August 25, 1942
4-5 Photos: Electron Microscopy, Undated
6 Photos: Frost Crystals and Frost Replicas, Undated
7 Photos: General Experiments, February 12, 1944, February 17, 1944, July 1950, Undated
8 Photos: High-Magnified Snow and Unidentified, Undated
9 Photos: Light Transmission through Focused Multicell, Undated
10 Photos: Meteor Grains, April 1953
11 Photos: Microscopic Surfaces, ex. Maidenhair Fern Fond and Goldthread Leaf Replica, Undated
12 Photos: Oil Firms on Water- Langmuir Experiments, 1936
13 Photos: Oxidized Oil Patterns on Monofilms, Undated
14 Photos: Sand, Microscopic View, Undated
15 Photos: Septaria, Undated
16 Photos: Severe Thunderstorms, 1944, 1945
17-18 Photos: Smoke Generation at Vrooman's Nose, 1942
19 Photos: Smoke Generation at Vrooman's Nose, 1942-1943
20 Photos: Smoke Screen Test: Vrooman's Nose, Prints, June 24, 1942, Undated
21 Photos: Van De Graff Generator, Undated
22 Photos: Volcanic Ash Under Microscope, January 24, 1947
23 Photos: and Negatives: Droplets, 1946, Undated
24 Photos, Negatives and Slides: Pentaeythritol Seeded Crystals, Undated
25 Projection Print Scales- Kodak, Undated
26 Point Discharge Recorder Charts, 1944
27 Potential Gradient Measurements, Analysis of, 1945
28 Precipitation Deposits, 1947
29 Precipitation Research, 1941-1947
30 Precipitation Research, 1953-1956
31 Precipitation Static, February 1943-October 1943
32 Precipitation Static, November 10, 1943-January 21, 1944
33 Precipitation Static, January 1944-September 1944
34 Precipitation Static, September 20, 1944-November 4, 1947
35 Precipitation Static: Photos, Aircraft Investigation, Undated
36 Precipitation Static- Snowstorm Studies , Cloud Particles, 1943-1944
37 Pressure Data: F-A Curves, F-A Apparatus, 1940
38 Project Cloud Trail Sample Data Card, Undated
39 Project SOIAS, 1951
40 Project Summit, 1948-1949
41 Pseudo- Adiabatic Diagrams, 1941-1942
42 Psychometric Charts (Air Conditioning Processes), 1945, 1947
43 "Records on Lubrication" Notebook, Part I, December 1, 1933-March 1934
44 "Records on Lubrication" Notebook, Part II, May 1934-September 1934
45 Reflection Transmission Data, 1939-1940
46 Relation of Certain Oils to Certain Metals, 1934
47 Research Lab Weather Forecasts, May 1947, November 1948-May 1949
48 Research Lab Weather Forecasts, June 1949-September 1949
49 Research Lab Weather Forecasts, September 1949-November 1949
50 Research Lab Weather Forecasts, November 1949-February 1950
51 Research Lab Weather Forecasts, March 1950-May 1950
52 Research Lab Weather Forecasts, June 1950-August 1950
Box Folder
10 1 Research Lab Weather Forecasts, September 1950-March 1951
2 Research Lab Weather Forecasts, April 1951-September 1951
3 Research Lab Weather Forecasts, October 1951-March 1952
4 Research Lab Weather Forecasts, April 1952-August 1952
5 Research Lab Weather Forecasts, September 1952-February 1953
6 Research Lab Weather Forecasts, March 1953-August 1953
7 Research Laboratory: Assorted Project Reports, Undated
8 Research Laboratory: Notebooks- Indices to, 1930s-1950s
9 Research Laboratory: Notebooks- Lab Assistant Task, Notebook for V. Schaefer, 1933
10 Research Laboratory: Notebooks- Various Topics, 1934-1935
11 Research Notes: General, 1939-1952, Undated
12 Research Notes: Graphs (0 degrees-39 degrees Celsius, Levels: Graphs), 1949
13 Rime Studies- Results, 1945
14 Salt and Sea Water, Undated
15 Sewage Treatment Plant, Schenectady- Weather Conditions, 1942-1943
16 Skeleton Films, 1936-1937
17 Sketch of Langmuir Invention by Schaefer, 1940
18 Sketches, Layouts, and Doodles of Langmuir and Whitney, Undated
19 Skim Analysis- Stearic Acid Calcium Stearate, Tannic Acid, Calcium "Tannate", 1935
20 Skim Crystals Slide data, 1937
21 Sky, Relative Brightness of from Woestyne, February 8, 1946
22 Slide Project Report (incomplete), Undated
23 Small Particle Study, Undated
24 Smoke Generation, 1940-1942
25 Smoke Generation, 1941-1942
26 Smoke Generation, 1946-1947, 1952
27 Smoke Generation, 1991-1993
28 Smoke Generation (Smoke Box Data), 1942
29 Smoke Generation (Smoke Generator Data), 1942
30-31 Smoke Generation (Testing in the Schoharie Valley), 1942, 1944, 1971
32 Smoke Particles- Calculations, Undated
33 Smoke Screening- Observations, Formulas, 1942, 1949, Undated
34 Soap Bubble Solution, Undated
35 Spherical Powders Made From Various Metals, 1952
36 Splash Patterns: Acid, Steady Particles, and Water Drops, 1944-1946
37 Stellar Crystals, Undated
38 Stokes' Law (Incomplete), Undated
39 Supercooled Droplets/Crystals- Handwritten Notes, Undated
40 Supersaturation of Water Vapor Report (Universite de Montreal), 1951
41 Surface Active Oils, Undated
42 Surface Chemistry, 1940
43 Surface Replicas: Electron Microscopy Articles and Photos, 1942-1943
44 Surface Replicas: Formvar, 1934-1935
45 Surface Replicas: Photos, 1942
46 Surface Replicas: Photos, Undated
47-48 Surface Replicas: Photos- Metals, 1938-1945
49 Surface Tension Measurements, 1936
Box Folder
11 1 Temperature Charts (Knolls), July 1952-October 1952
2 Tentative Research Programs, Undated
3 Terrestrial Magnetism, 1947, 1949
4 Thunderstorm Project (Aerophysics Institute), 1948
5 Time Lapse Unit, Undated
6 Transparent Balloons, 1947
7 Ultraviolet Light, Light Scattering, Non-Glare Studies, 1937-1939
8 Upper Winds- Notations on Index Card, Undated
9 Variance Analysis, 1954
10 Virus Detection, 1941
11 Water Divining, 1944-1945
12 Weather Bureau, 1946
13 Weather Data Journal, 1948, 1951
14 Weather Modification- Synopsis of Questions Answered and Those Remaining, Undated
15 Wetting Agents, 1940, 1949
Oversized
1 Wind Speed Charts, c.1952
Box Folder
11 16 Wind Tunnels Data on Pilots, February 1944-February 1945
17 WV-84A Ultrasensitive Micrometer, 1953
Subseries 4: Research Notebooks, 1936-1954,, Undated
Arranged by size, then chronological within each set.
Comprising the years 1934 to 1954, Vincent Schaefer’s research notebooks are bound volumes containing handwritten observations, formulas, and drawings from his scientific endeavors. They comprise their own subseries partly due to the fragile nature of the bindings, covers, and paper itself, but also because the nature of the bound books prevents their being divided among the categories of snow and ice research, cloud seeding, general research, etc. Researchers are encouraged to consult these notebooks for information on Schaefer’s World War II projects, cloud seeding, surface chemistry, and more. Please note that Schaefer kept two sets of notebooks from 1940 to 1943—in addition to the larger hardback notebooks, he also kept a set of small softcover books that dealt with very specific topics such as smoke filters and artificial fog. He also used some of the smaller-size notebooks for scientific observations from his own home.
Box Folder
12 1 Research Laboratory: Notebooks-#2474, October 19, 1934-April 13, 1936
2 Research Laboratory: Notebooks-#2642, April 1, 1936-May 13, 1937
3 Research Laboratory: Notebooks-#2750, May 6, 1937-December 1, 1937
4 Research Laboratory: Notebooks-#2836, December 3, 1937-February 8, 1938
5 Research Laboratory: Notebooks-#2891, May 3, 1938-February 20, 1939
Box Folder
13 1 Research Laboratory: Notebooks-#2991, February 24, 1939-March 25, 1940
2 Research Laboratory: Notebooks-#3132, March 29, 1940-September 7, 1943
Box Folder
14 1 Research Laboratory: Notebooks-#3771, October 8, 1945-February 3, 1945
2 Research Laboratory: Notebooks-#3896, February 5, 1945-February 24, 1950
3 Research Laboratory: Notebooks-#4653, July 19, 1948-February 26, 1954
4 Research Laboratory: Notebooks-#3211, September 23, 1940-January 10 1942
Box Folder
15 1 Research Laboratory: Notebooks-#3398, December 3, 1941-February 9, 1942
2 Research Laboratory: Notebooks-#3672, March 22, 1943-September 17, 1943
3 Research Laboratory: Notebooks-#4651, June 25, 1948-February 10, 1950
Box Folder
16 1 Research Laboratory: Notebooks-#4652, July 14, 1948-July 8, 1950
Subseries 5: Correspondence, 1939-1954,, Undated
Arranged alphabetically
Schaefer’s correspondence files are arranged alphabetically by subject. They include letters sent and received by Schaefer as well as some to and from Irving Langmuir. Schaefer also retained letters that were to and from others at General Electric but carbon copied to him. While most of Schaefer’s letters came to the archives grouped in large, general batches, some were retained separate from the larger groups. The archivist kept that arrangement, which is why certain letters are foldered individually or in very small groups while the majority of this subseries is simply categorized as “general”.
Due to time constraints, correspondence that might relate to Project Cirrus was not culled from this series to be placed in Series #2, so researchers might wish to peruse this subseries for Cirrus letters, especially those two and from various branches of the military.
Box Folder
17 1 Aerological Instruments- Recommendations (I. Langmuir), November 1, 1944
2 "Altimeter Effects Resulting from Orthographic Lifting"- Report w/Letter, October 21, 1947
3 Amateur Weathermen of America, October 1947-December 1947
4 American Geophysical Union- Schaefer's membership, May 9, 1946, May 13, 1946
5 The American Magazine- Rejection Slip, October 24, 1946
6 American Meteorological Society, Letters and Memos, 1948-1949
7 Angus, John- Distillation Products, March 1949-April 1949
8 Beere, Norman (Editor of Nucleonics)- Visit to General Electric, October 31, 1949
9 Blodgett, K.- Letters from Various Sources: Non-Reflective Coating Technology, January 1948-April 1948
10 Blodgett, K.- Letters from Various Sources: Semi-Conducting Glazes, February 1948-March 1948
11 Blodgett, K. and Minnesota Mining & Manufacturing Co., May 1948
12 Blue Hill Meteorological Observatory, March 17, 1944, January 1947
13 Bowden, Dr. Phillip, Cambridge and I. Langmuir, April 30, 1948
14 Byers, Horace R., Dept. of Meteorology at University of Chicago- to V. Schaefer regarding "Cloud Electricity", February 22, 1950
15 Card from "Marcy C." Upon Schaefer's Departure from G.E., c. February 19, 1945
16 Cathode Ray Tube with Increased Writing Speed, March 10, 1942, November 12, 1942
17 Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge, January 1947-February 1947
18 Church, James E.- University of Nevada, January 1947-February 1947
19 Clouds: Data Collection Devices (incomplete letter by C.G. suits), November 20, 1945
20 Cloud Seeding by Others: Alaska, June 5, 1951, June 7, 1951
21 Cloud Seeding by Others: Barnes, C.S., December 27, 1946, January 3, 1947
22 Cloud Seeding by Others: Belgian Congo, December 19, 1949
23 Cloud Seeding by others: Israel, June 7, 1949
24 Cloud Seeding by others: North Dakota and Wyoming, August 5, 1951, Undated
25 Cloud Seeding- Pre Project Cirrus, 1946-1947
26 The Collected Works of Irving Langmuir- Memos and Correspondence, 1958-1961, 1966
27 Collodian Replicas, Woods Hole, September 1, 1942
28 Communication among V. Schaefer, I Langmuir, K. Blodgett and A. Rothen, December 1946-September 1947
29 Conducting Films, Draft, Undated
30 Cornish, Paul Floyd- Letter with Poem, 1951, June 17, 1952
31 Curry, John J. Major General USAF (retired), February 10, 1954
32 Davidson, A.E. and C.S. Wright- Frazil Ice, 1948-1949
33 Deer Fly- Speed of Flight, Rochester Museum of Arts and Science, March 28, 1939
34 Department of Defense: "Ice Crystal Nuclei"- Security Clearance for Publication of Schaefer Articles, June 30, 1951
35 Eddy, C.O. (Niagara Sprayer and Chemical Co.) to Dr. Lyall Hagmann- Particle sizes, June 30, 1945
36 Electron Microscope- Imperial Paper and Color Corp. and State of New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, January 6, 1945, December 14, 1942
37 Encyclopedia Arctica- V. Stephansson, September 26, 1950, December 7, 1950, January 30, 1951
38 Falconer, R. Letter re: Cloud Meter, June 13, 1945
39 Falconer, R. to Fred Milan, Weather Bureau Airport Station, July 7, 1947
40 Falconer, R.- Recommendations for Atmospheric Science Equipment at Knolls Atomic Power Lab, December 22, 1948
41 Fernandez Company, Albuquerque, NM- Cloud Seeding, 18508
42 Fischer, Nathan B. (Louis Fischer Inc.) and K. Blodgett, September 18, 1949, September 29, 1949
43 Foreign Government Requests, August 1954-November 1954
44 G and W Filters, Testing of (Schaefer letter to Langmuir), Undated
45 General Correspondence, 1939-1945
46 General Correspondence, January-February 1946, December 1946
47 General Correspondence, January 3, 1946, July 1946-November 1946
48 General Correspondence, January 1947
49 General Correspondence, February 1947-March 1947
50 General Correspondence, April 1947-May 1947
51 General Correspondence, June 1947-July 1947
52 General Correspondence, August 1947-September 1947
53 General Correspondence, September 1947
54-55 General Correspondence, October 1947
56 General Correspondence, November 1947
57 General Correspondence, December 1947
58 General Correspondence, January 1948
59 General Correspondence, February 1948
60 General Correspondence, March 1948
61 General Correspondence, April 1948-June 1948
62 General Correspondence, July 1948-August 1948
63 General Correspondence, November 1948-December 1948
64 General Correspondence, 1949-1950
65 General Correspondence, 1952-1954
66 General Correspondence, January 20, 1928
67 Gisborne, H.T. to Dr. Ross Gun- Lightning- Induced Fires, March 25, 1948
68 Gisborne, H.T. to V. Schaefer, pre- and post-Schaefer Visit to Priest River Area- Lightning Fires, April 1948-August 1948
69 G.M. Giannini and Co., Inc. to R. Falconer, August 26, 1948
70 Handwritten letter to Schaefer from "Vic" (Clark?) Regarding Droplet data and Voltages Applied with Point Collector Graphs included, Undated
71 Hansen, Jr., C.A.- General Electric, Hanford Engineering Works, May 1947-June 1947
72 Harnischfeger Corp.- General Electric Crane Cab Spray, August 1947-September 1947
73 Heat Pump dept. at General Electric, April 24, 1953
74 Home-Made Rain: Publishing Contract for Booklet, January 3, 1953-May 5, 1953
75 Honorary Degree From Notre Dame, V. Schaefer, 1946-1948
76 Howell, W.E.- Print reproductions, Cloud Seeding locations, January 23, 1951
77 Howell, W.E. to K.H. Brown at State House, Albany NY, April 8, 1953
78 Hubert, Ernest, August 31, 1948-December 5, 1949
79 Hurd, Dorothy to Schaefer- Re: Wyoming, November 1946-January 1948
Box Folder
18 1 Icing Research: Rime on Mount Washington, November 26, 1945
2 Industrial Museum for General Electric, November 27, 1931, December2, 1931
3 Jet Stream and Cloud-related Correspondence, 1951-1953
4 Jet Stream and Cloud-related Correspondence with Additional News Clips and Research Notes, 1954
5 Jet Stream, Clouds and Sweden- W.E. Hubert, December 2, 1952
6 Jordan, J.P (Syracuse Works) and K. Blodgett, August/September 1948
7 Journal of Colloid Science and K. Blodgett, September 1946-September 1947
8 Langmuir, I. and Dorothy Wrinch (Smith College), October/November 1947
9 Langmuir, I. and the Government of the Province of Alberta Dept. of Agriculture- Field Crops Branch, February 1945, October 1945, February 1947
10 Langmuir, I. and J.L. Kavanau, February 27, 1947, March 3, 1947
11 Langmuir, I. Letters- General, 1950, 1951
12 Langmuir, I.- Protein Monolayers, August 11, 1939
13 Langmuir, I to Margaret Bakuzonis from Socorro, New Mexico, April 22, 1953
14 Langmuir, I. to Schaefer from Arizona, May 1, 1953
15 Letters about Schaefer, 1941, 1947
16 Linear Expansion of Rails, Milton Jay Kimmel, April 25, 1952
17 Liquid Lens Press Release with Photograph, February 24, 1953
18 "Ludox" Colloidal Silica, DuPont, June 1, 1949
19 McKibben, Dr. J.L. (Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory) and K. Blodgett- Electrostatic Accelerators, February 1948, March 1948, July 1948
20 Meteorite Specimens, Smithsonian Institution, September 18, 1943
21 Milliken and Farwell, Inc. to Schaefer and Langmuir, June - August 1947
22 Morgan McDermott Post No.7, Tucson, AZ, April 1947- April 1948
23 Mott, Harvey (Phoenix Republic) and Amos Hoff (Phoenix Junior College) to and from V. Schaefer and I. Langmuir, July 1947- January 1948
24 Multicell Systems- from G.E. Apparatus Dept., November 2, 1951
25 Nakaya, U- Travel to Oslo and Need for Movie Film (Includes Photo of Anaya Family), June 1948, September 1949, Undated
26 National Military Establishment- Research and Development Board, July 1948-August 1948, April 1949
27 Natural History- Proposed Photo Series (Includes Images with Schaefer's Captions, May 25, 1943
28 Naval Research Lab to I. Langmuir- Personnel Evaluation, May 7, 1948
29 Navy Department Office of Naval Research, July 3, 1952
30 North American Weather Consultants, Santa Barbara Municipal Airport, June 27, 1952
31 Office of Secretary of Defense, February 5, 1954
32 Paschkis, Victor to General Electric, with reply, February 1947
33 Philo, Alice Warner to Schaefer, February 2, 1947
34 Postcard from Paris, August 3, 1952
35 Proposal for Support by the Office of Naval Research- Post Project Cirrus (with follow-up letter), April 21, 1952, May 5, 1952
36 Revised Proposal to Office of Naval Research for Past Project Cirrus Work, May 27, 1952
37 Rice, Maurice to Dr. Irving Langmuir- Description of Weather Event, with Pictures, February 9, 1950
38 Roan, Kathleen to V. Schaefer, May 23, 1948, June 4, 1948, June 10, 1948
39 Robbins Motion Picture Service, March 25, 1949, April 20, 1949
40 Shade, David/Apex Tool Company to K. Blodgett, with reply, July 1947-August 1947
41 Split Rock Lodge- Snow for Ski Facilities, December 1946-January 1948
42 State University of New York to I. Langmuir- Langmuir's Resignation from Board of Trustees, September 12, 1949
43 Stetson, Harlan T.- Letter re: Mean Hourly Discharge, May 2, 1944
44 Surface Replicas: Biological Applications, October 10, 1942
45 Surface Replicas: Botanical Applications, Undated
46 Teale, Edwin Way- Letter to Schaefer (Snowflakes), August 12, 1945
47 Union of South Africa- Scientific Liaison Office, March 1947-January 1948
48 Vancouver Forest Service, November 1947-July 1948
49 Ventilation Studies, January 21, 1947
50 Vonnegut, B. to I. Langmuir- Rain Gauge Cloth (Cloth Included), August 1, 1944
51 Walton, Sande, High School Student, to I. Langmuir, with reply, September 22, 1947, October 14, 1947
52 Waugh, Dr. David to I. Langmuir and K. Blodgett, February 1947-April 1947
53 Waugh, Dr. David (MIT) from I. Langmuir, April 30, 1948
54 Weather Control: Article for Grolier, June 1951-July 1951
55 Wrinch, Dr. Dorothy- Oxford University, Undated
56 Yagoda, H. Article and Letter to Schaefer: "Analytical Patterns in the Study of Mineral and Biological Materials", February 1943, April 29, 1944
57 Younger, Dorothy- Rhyming Letter, November 28, 1946
Subseries 6: Subject Files, 1891-1978,, Undated
Arranged alphabetically
The Schaefer subject files are a collection of brochures, notes, and other ephemera that have enduring value but do not belong in other categories such as cloud seeding or snow and ice research. These files include research notes from sources other than General Electric; scientists and entrepreneurs frequently exchanged results of their work with one another, but to avoid confusion, the work of Schaefer and other G.E. scientists can be found in the next subseries while informal research notes and observations by others are located here.
Box Folder
19 1 Address Book, Undated
2 Aerial Photos, Assorted, 1942
3 Aeronautical Chart for Hudson, 1947
4 Air Material Command, Dayton Ohio- Temperature Distribution notes and photos, c.1946
5 Advancing and Receding Contact- Angles, 1949-1950
6 Albany Airport Instrument Approach Chart, October 4, 1951
7 Amateur Weathering of America, 1947
8 American Chemical Society, Eastern New York Section, Directory and By-Laws, 1949
9 American Chemical Society- Schaefer's Enrollment for 1938, 1937
10 American Geophysical Union- Relationship with General Electric, 1945-1946, 1948, 1952
11 American Men of Science Questionnaire, c.1948
12 American Meteorological Society Committee on Professional Ethics and Standards-Report to the Council, May 3, 1951
13 American Meteorological Society, Meetings and Code of Ethics, 1949-1951
14 American Meteorological Society, Meeting Programs, 1946-1954, Undated
15 American Polar Society- Membership Invitation, Undated
Oversized Folder
4 2 American Society for Testing Materials- Poster Advertising V.J. Schaefer and P.E. Kraght Speaking Engagement, April 13, 1948
Box Folder
19 16 Apprenticeship Records, 1923-1924
17 Atmospheric Data from Rocket-Flights- News article and letter, 1948, January 13, 1949
18 Atmospheric Motion and Particle Movement, 1953
19 Biography- Bensin, Basil M., 1948
20 Binaural Effect Studies, 1942
21 Biography of Schaefer, Capital Cogs, September 6, 1950
22 Biography of Schaefer, Manuscript, Undated
23 Bishops Cap (Mitella sp.) photo negative, Undated
24 News Clipping, Award Recipient (photocopy)- Blodgett, Katherine, November 9, 1972
25 Boeing Aircraft Photos, 1960, Undated
26 Brazilian Traction, Light and Power 36th Annual Report, 1948
27 British Glaciological Society, 1947-1951
28 Calgon- Formulas, Properties, Graphs, 1937, Undated
29 Calrod Experiment Summary with Letter, Undated
30 Candid Camera- Picture of I. Langmuir, December 29, 1944
31 Cartoons and Comics, 1947-1950
32 Centennial Publication: "G.E. 100-Toward the Second Century", 1978
33 Character Reference for Schaefer, September 16, 1947
34 "Class Assignment" Notebook, 1934-1935
35 Climatic Trends in the Northeastern U.S. Symposium, 1952
36 "Cloud Forms of the Jet Stream" articles with related photos & news clippings, 1953
37 Cold Chamber: Bowser, Inc. Refrigeration Division Brochure- Temperature Altitude and Humidity Simulation Units, Undated
38 Cold Chamber: Demonstration at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Undated
39 Colloid Symposium (MIT)- Program of Papers, June 9, 1938-June 11, 1938
40 Committee on Geophysical Science of the joint Research and Development Board- Panel on Meteorology, April 23, 1947
41 Compendium of Meteorology tentative table of contents with partial letter, 1949
42 Costs for Making Copies of Reports, 1944-1945
43 Crystallization of Metals, Rocks and Ice-Symposium, October 1951
44 Current Science, Vol. XXVIII #4, featuring I. Langmuir, V. Schaefer, K. Blodgett, C.G. Suits, October 5, 1942-October 9, 1942
45 Distribution of Contract recommendation (with note to Schaefer from "Vic", Undated
46 Dutch (?) Meteorological Map, Undated
47 Eastern Snow Conference Materials, February 16-17, 1950, February 15-17, 1951, February 14-15, 1952
48 Edison General Electric Company: Instructions to Foremen Fragile Item, 1891
49 Einladung zur Sitzung der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft- Zurich, December 1953
50 Electron Microscopy: Description with Letter, June 2, 1942, Undated
51 Electron Microscopy: Newspaper Clippings, November 6, 1941, November 21, 1941
52 Electron Microscopy: Symposium, November 27, 1942
53 Electronic Stratometer vs. Radio Sonde- Nomenclature Change from Minutes of University of Chicago Dept. of Meteorology, 1945
54 Employee Rating Sheets instructions, July 1949
55 "Essais de Modification des Nuages dans les Pyrenees", June 6, 1951
56 Fasciation (collected articles on), 1948, 1971, Undated
57 Fire Danger Meter and Burning Index Meter, April 1942
58 Fires in Ontario- Map and Data, June 1948
59 "A Five- Year Record of Lightning Storms and Forest Fires", H.T. Gisborne, April 1931
60 Flashtubes- General Electric and Strobo Research, 1947-1948, Undated
61 Copy of 1752 letter on Electricity- Franklin, Benjamin, 1920
62 General Engineering Lab Research Publications, 1955-1959
63 Geodimeter description, 1951
64 Groundwater Elevation in the Hudson- Mohawk Drainage Basin, 1931-1950
65 Hailstones, 1949-1950, Undated
66 High Altitude Observatory: Contributions and Supplemental Information, March 1953
67 High Voltage Radiography Symposium, March 4, 1952-March 5, 1952
68 Identification badge- Schaefer, General Electric, Undated
69 Incense (Blue Smoke) graph, Undated
70 Institute of Navigation Meeting Program, February 13, 1947-February 14, 1947
71 Instructions for Operating the Kodaslide Projector, Model 2A, c.1947
72 Instructions: Portable and Switchboard Recording Instruments (Types CF-1, 2, 4, and 5), c.1950
73 Instrumentation for Industrial Hygiene Symposium, May 24, 1954-May 27, 1954
74 Iodine Abstracts and Reviews, Vol. I #3-6 and Vol. II #1, January-October 1950, January-April 1951
75 Isotopes-Supplement #1, September 1949
76 Japanese Article, Undated
77 Jet Stream- Radio press releases, January 26, 1953
78 Laboratory Conference No.8- research presentations, artists rendering at the knolls, plans for research lab, October 11, 1945-October 12, 1945
79 Laboratory Study and Development Program, Undated
80 Landform Map of the Northwestern States, Copyright 1941, Undated
81 Landform Map of the United States, 1939
82 Langmuir, Irving: Biography by A.C. Langmuir, December 1932
83 Langmuir, Irving: Biography by K.B. Blodgett, July 1933
84 Langmuir, Irving: Biography by W.R. Whitney, February 1941
85 Langmuir, Irving: Biography Reprinted from Scientific American, September 1937
86 Langmuir, Irving: "Book U" Supplements, 1952-1953
87 Langmuir, Irving: The Collected Works of Irving Langmuir-Introduction to Volume VII by Schaefer, 1960
88 Langmuir, Irving: The Collected Works of Irving Langmuir-Introduction to Volume 10 by Schaefer, Undated
89 Langmuir, Irving: Columbia University Engineering Center News, December 1951
90 Langmuir, Irving: Memorial Speech by Nephews, Union College, August 21, 1957
91 Langmuir, Irving: Memorials by Schaefer, 1957-1958
92 Langmuir, Irving: Perkin Medal Award, 1928
93 Langmuir, Irving: Photo album index, c.1950
94 Langmuir, Irving: Portrait Photos, Undated
Oversized Folder
4 3 Langmuir, Irving: Portrait Photo, Undated
Box Folder
19 95 Langmuir, Irving: Priestley Medal Award, October 1929
96 Langmuir, Irving: Publications list, Undated
97 Langmuir, Irving: "A Tribute to Irving Langmuir, 1881-1957", August 19, 1957
98 Le Recueil, March 1947
99 "Lichtstreuung an Aerosolteilchen", April 1952
100 Map: United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, 1948
101 Memo: H.T. Gisborne- Use of B-29 Jets in Lightning Fire Prevention, June 29, 1949
102 Meteorological office equipment requirements, March 6, 1952
103 Mohawk Association of Scientists and Engineers Newsletter, August 27, 1952
104 Mohawk Association of Scientists and Engineers Newsletter (MASE), June 17, 1953
105 Multicell structure- official patent with original letter regarding application of invention, November 3, 1950, January 24, 1956
106 Museum Service-Bulletin of Rochester Museum of Arts & Sciences, March 1939, April 1939
107 National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics- Research abstracts, June 15, 1951
108 Newspaper clippings, 1939-1950, Undated
109 New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology Catalog, 1951-1952
110 New York Academy of Sciences Meetings, 1949- 1950
111 North American Weather Consultants, 1951-1952
112 Northern Rocky Mountain Forest & Range Experiment Station- List of Publications Available for Distribution of Loan,, June 1958
113 Notebook with E.E. Hubert Business card, 1948
114 Nucleation Symposium- Industrial & Engineering Division, American Chemical Society, Undated
115 Outdoor Hobbies of Schaefer's (GE news release), c.1942
116 Ozone Pollution- American Optical Company, 1953, Undated
117 Panel Discussion- "The Public Looks at the College", Undated
118 Papers and speakers- Presentations through the year, 1951
119 Patents, 1934-1952
120 "Petrographic Analysis of Novacite", author unidentified, Undated
121 Photo Caption cards (?), Undated
122 Photo: Einstein, Albert with unidentified group, Undated
123 Photo: "Man Makes Snow!" exhibit, Undated
124 Photo: Model "A" Microscope Illuminator, Undated
125 Photo: Pennsylvania electric Association Hydraulic Power Committee, with list of names, April 1952
126 Photo: Portrait of Schaefer, c. 1945
127 Photo: Research laboratory(?), Undated
128 Photo: Schaefer and Langmuir at General Electric, c.1946
129 Photo: Schaefer with unidentified colleagues, Undated
130 Photo: Schenectady and Glenmont, Aerial View,
131 Photo : School Science fair (weather station), Undated
132 Photo: Schoon, Alexander-"Class of 1931", Undated
133 Photo: Woman Reading Boston Globe Story on Schaefer's First Successful Cloud Seeding, c.November 1946
134 Photographic Data Kodachrome Professional Set Film-List, July 1943
135 Photos: Dr. C. Guy Suits and General Electric Research Laboratory, Undated
136 Photos: Equipment, Schaefer and Colleagues, Unidentified Experiments, 1940, Undated
137 Photos: Lab instruments, August 11, 1945, September 10, 1945
138 Photos: Langmuir, I., 1910, 1935, Undated
139 Photos: Mount Cimone and unidentified, Undated
140 Photos: New York State Barge Canal, Aerial Views, Likely Schenectady Area, October 26, 1935, Undated
Box Folder
20 1 Photos: New York State Barge Canal, Aerial Views, Likely Schenectady Area, April 23, 1941, Undated
2 Photos: New York State Barge Canal, Aerial Views, Likely Schenectady Area, Undated
3 Photos: Schaefer Alone, with Colleagues, and with Family, c.1930-c.1970
4 Photos: Schaefer and unidentified men, possibly at Crater Lake, June 20, 1947
5 Photos: Science Forum Panel First Meeting, 1944
6 Photos: Scientific instruments, Undated
7 Photos: Smoke generator assembly (with key to identify parts), March 13, 1942
8 Photos: Unidentified (includes negatives), 1949
9 Photos: Unidentified subjects,
10 Physics Today, August 1948
11 Porous Vycor Glass shipping memorandum, January 31, 1952
12 Postcard from Mexico, Undated
13 Press Release: "High School Girl Constructs Snowmaking Device for $4.32", June 27, 1947
14 Press Release: "Oil Drops Assume Geometrical Shapes on Protein Films", with photo, Undated
15 Priest River Photos, August 1948
16 Program for Appliance and Merchandise Department, March 13, 1951
17 Programs: American Meteorological Society 102nd National Meting with 30th Annual Meeting of American Geophysical Union,
18 Project Jupiter- Conference at Schenectady, list of names, November 14, 1952
19 Publicity Department Photos (includes electron microscope images), 1943
20 Radiosonde and Rawinsonde Stations in the U.S, Undated
21 Rain Forest, June 1953
22 Raindrop Physics Study Proposal, 1951
23 Report Recipients Checklist (report unspecified), Undated
24 Research Laboratory Bulletins, 1947, 1949, Undated
25 Research Laboratory- Ceremony of Dedication Program, October 9, 1950
26 Research laboratory: "Current Research Activities", October 1, 1948
27 Research Laboratory: History by I. Langmuir and others, manuscript, Undated
28 Research laboratory: Request for project summary, April 1, 1947
29 Research Laboratory: Shop Order requests, 1947
30 Research Laboratory: Time Clock Requirement Memo, June 17, 1938
31 Research Site Map, Undated
32 Reviews by Schaefer and Others, 1940, 1980
33 Robert M. Losey Award to Schaefer- Press Release, January 20, 1953
34 Roche Research Club Program, 1950-1951
35 Rochester Museum Council- Fellowship to Schaefer, 1943
36 Royal Meteorological Society- Centenary materials, charter and by-laws handbook, 1948, 1950
Box Folder
21 1 Royal Meteorological Society- Centenary meeting: correspondence, brochure, & supplemental materials, 1949-1950
2 Salt: The Story of Diamond Crystal Salt, Undated
3 Schaefer Statements on Weather Modification with Unidentified "Council Letters", June 8, 1951, February 1953-March 1953, Undated
4 Schaefer Statement Prepared for Senator James P. Kem- Kansas-Missouri Floods, Undated
5 Schaefer with unidentified colleagues, Ottawa- photo, Fall 1949
6 Schenectady Plant- Visits, 1949, 1952
7 Schenectady Works Apprentice Alumni Association-Book and Photograph, 1941
8 Science: Vol.89, #2316, May 19, 1939
9 Science Service (Scientific News Reports), 1946-1948, 1952
10 Scientific Conferences, 1950-1951, Undated
11 Severe Storms Report- University of Chicago,
12 Shell Aviation News, Issue #180(Schaefer on pp. 4-6),
13 "Sketches of Dr. Langmuir and Dr. Whitney", With Additional Drawings and Notes by V. Schaefer, 1934-1935, Undated
14 Smoke Generation- Article in Popular Science, July 1943
Oversized Folder
2 1 Snowflake Preservation and Replica Posters, Undated
Box Folder
21 15 "Snowflake Scientist" Cartoon from Young Catholic Messenger, November 23, 1951
16 "Some Questions Science Does Not Answer", Dr. Harold A. Larrabee- Talk Delivered in G.E.'s "Science Forum" Radio Program, April 4, 1951
17 Speech: "Planning Unplanned Research", Research laboratory Colloquium, I. Langmuir, December 12, 1951
18 Speech: "Progress in Control of Meteorological Factors", V.J. Schaefer, April 1952
19 Surface Replicas: "Snowflake Hobby Leads to New Way of Studying War Metals", May 1942, June 1942
20 Symposium on Nucleation- Program and Paper Abstracts, December 27, 1951-December 28, 1951
21 Talks: American Chemical Society (Wooster College section), 1949
22 Talks: Eastern Colleges Science Conference, 1953
23 Talks: "Farm Forum" (WGY) "Doing Something About the Weather", 1947
24 Talks: The Franklin Institute, 1947
25 Talks: Friends of the Land, June 21, 1951
26 Talks: Hanford Engineer Works (Hanford, WA), April 19, 1947
27 Talks: Institute of Navigation, February 13, 1947-February 14, 1947
28 Talks: The Johns Hopkins Research Conference, Undated
29 Talks: Kiwanis Club of Gloversville, 1948
30 Talks: Kiwanis Club of Rotterdam, 1951
31 Talks: Lake Pleasant Central School (Speculator, NY), 1948
32 Talks: New Mexico Wool Growers Association, 1952
33 Talks: New York Railroad Club, 1949
34 Talks: New York University, 1953
35 Talks: Pittsfield, MA Chamber of Commerce, Undated
36 Talks: The Rensselaer Physical Society, April 27, 1948
37 Talks: Rotary Club of Schenectady, January 1, 1947-17183
38 Talks: "Science Forum" (WGY), April 9, 1947
39 Talks: Education Board Conference (Program), 1947
40 Talks: Sigma Xi, March 27, 1948
41 Talks: Sigma Xi- Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn Chapter, May 20, 1948
42 Talks: Union College Physics Society, November 7, 1951
43 Talks: University of Delaware, 1947
44 Talks: Western Forestry and Conservation Association, December 11, 1952
45 Technical Development Committee- Symposium on Polar Navigation, December 16, 1946-December 20, 1946
46 Text Proposed for Guest Column of Mr. Robert S. Allen, Post-Hall Newspaper Syndicate (By V.J. Schaefer), August 7, 1953
Box Folder
22 1 Thunderstorm Electricity Conference- Advance Materials, March 1950
2 Topical Organization of First National Conference on the Electron Microscope, November 27, 1942
3 Tribute to Schaefer- Research Laboratory Memo, May 1948
4 Trurnit, Hans J. (M.D.)- Bibliography, Undated
5 U.S. Department of Agriculture Circular #591: Influence of Altitude and Aspect on Daily Variations in Factors of Forest-Fire Danger, February 1941
6 U.S. Military Map, Undated
7 "Unforeseeable Results of Research," I. Langmuir- Radio Broadcast, January 21, 1945
8 Union Geodesique et Geophysique Internationale Association de Meteorologie, 1951
9 United Nations Scientific Conference on the Conservation and Utilization of Resources,
10 Vocational Training Record Card for V. Schaefer (National Defense), December 22, 1941
11 "We the People" Radio Script Featuring V.J. Schaefer, January 19, 1947
12 "Weather as a Natural Resource"- Proposed Script for Radio Talk, 1949
13 Weather! Bulletin of the National Weather Improvement Association, August 30, 1951, September 7, 1951
14 Weather Zone Map- United States, Undated
15 Western Snow Conference, 1947
16 Western Snow Conference, January 16, 1948
17 Whitney, Willis R.- Whitney Day, News Clippings, Brochures, Correspondence, 1933-1957, Undated
18 "Why You Fly Thunderstorms the Way You Do," P.J. Harvey, February 1952
19 Winter Magic- Tentative Plan for Book, Undated
20 Worcester Tornado- Correspondence and Reports, 1954
21 Young People's Weekly,
Subseries 7: Reports & Publications by Schaefer, 1936-1954,, Undated
Arranged chronologically
These are reports and articles written by Vincent Schaefer that did not directly cover work done through Project Cirrus. Many are from his early days at General Electric when he was still a research assistant, covering topics such as surface chemistry. Any articles co-written by Schaefer and his colleagues are included in this subseries. Some articles and reports do discuss early cloud seeding issues but do not appear to be directly related to Project Cirrus. When in doubt, the archivist looked for credits or acknowledgements to the U.S. military to help determine how a certain article or report should be categorized. Please note that many of the articles are reprints, which are reflected in the folder dates. Some folders also include manuscripts of the published articles or reports, which is indicated in the folder title.
Box Folder
23 1 "Composition of Fatty Acid on Water Containing Calcium or Barium Salts"- I. Langmuir and V.J. Schaefer, February 1936
2 "Some Observations on the Mechanism of Lubrication" (Manuscript), March 6, 1936
3 "Optical Measurements of the Thickness of Film Absorbed from a Solution"-Irving Langmuir and V.J. Schaefer, July 1937
4 "Multilayers of Sterols and the Adsorption of Digitonin by Deposited Monolayers"- Langmuir-VJS and Harry Sobotha, September 1937
5 "The Effect of Dissolved Salts on Insoluble Monolayers"-Irving Langmuir and VJS, November 1937
6 "Biological Activity of Enzyme Monolayers" (Manuscript), February 28, 1938
7 "Activities of Urease and Pepsin Monolayers"-Irving Langmuir and VJS, June 1938
8 "Expansion Patterns of Protein Monolayers on Water", November 1938
9 "Salted out Protein Films"-Irving Langmuir and VJS, November 1938
10 "Effect of Ultraviolet Light on Built-up Multilayers", May 1939
11 "An Indian Spoon?", January 1941
12 "A Method for Making Snowflake Replicas", March 1941
13 "Studies of Surface Properties by the Light Scattering of Deposited Liquid Films"- Notes Photos and Negatives, April 1941, October 1941, Undated
14 Making "Fossil" Snowflakes, July 1941
15 A Method of Making Replicas of Snowflakes, Ice Crystals and other Short Lived Substances, September 1941
16 Use of Snow Flake Replicas for Studying Winter Storms, January 1942
17 Surface Replicas for Use in the Electron Microscope, April 1942
18 New Methods for Preparing Surface Replicas for Microscope Observation, November 1942
19 "How to Fingerprint a Snowstorm", January 1943
20 Dry Stripped Replicas for the Electron Microscope, February 1943
21 "Getting Close to Nature's Surfaces", March 1943
22 "Surface Replicas Containing Dye for Use in the Light Microscope", July 1943
23 "Snow and Experimental Meteorology", 1943
24 Winter Magic, January 1944
25 "A Study of Biaural Perception of the Direction of a Sound Source" -I. Langmuir- C.V. Ferguson- E.F. Hennelly-Photos, August 11, 1943
26 "Properties of Single Particles of Snow and the Electrical Effects they Produce in Storms" (Manuscript), 1944, Undated
27 "Properties of Single Particles of Snow and the Electrical Effects they Produce in Storms"-Notes and Photos, April 1944, April 1945, Undated
Box Folder
24 1 "Properties of Single Particles and the Electrical Effects They Produce in Storms", Ca. 1945
2 "Doing Something About Weather", January 1945
3 "Report on Icing Studies Underway on Mt. Washington, New Hampshire and Schenectady, New York-Up to and Including January 20, 1945", February 1, 1945
4 "Equipment and Procedures for Making Very Thin Absorbing Membranes" (Manuscript), February 22, 1945
5 "Report in Installation of New Liquid Water Content Instrument on Mt. Washington" (Manuscript), April 7, 1945
6 "Report in Installation of New Liquid Water Content Instrument on Mt. Washington, New Hampshire and Other Studies Underway at the Observatory and the Laboratory in Schenectady, New York", April 7, 1945
7 "Demountable Rotating Multicylinders for Measuring Liquid Water Content and Particle Size of Clouds in Above and Below Freezing Temperatures ", 1945
8 "Heat Requirements for Instruments and Airfoils During Ice Storms on Mt. Washington", April 1946
9 Icing Study Reports-3 in 1, April 1946
10 "The Liquid Water Content of Summer Clouds on the Summit of Mt. Washington"-VJS, April 1946
11 The Preparation and Use of Water Sensitive Coating for Sampling Cloud Particles, April 1946
12 "So You Want to Live in a Lake", June 5, 1946
13 "Final Report on Icing Research-July 1, 1945-July 1, 1946", August 8, 1946
14 "Report on General Electric Cloud Meter (Plane Model) with Photographs", August 16, 1945
15 Production of Ice Crystals in a Cloud of Supercooled Water Droplets, November 15, 1946
16 "Demountable Rotating Multicylinders for Measuring Liquid Water Content and Particle Size of Below Freezing Temperatures " (Manuscripts), Ca. 1946
17 "Down from the Sky", 1946
18 "An Historical Account on the Development of My Smoke Generator", June 4, 1947
Oversized Folder
2 2 "Historic Scene at Vroman's Nose in 1942", June 26, 1947
Box Folder
24 19 "Methods of Dissipating Supercooled Clouds in the Natural Atmosphere", September 1947-December 1947
20 "Doing Something about the Weather" (Manuscript with letter), November 1947
21 "Heat Requirements for Instruments and Airfoils During Ice Storms on Mt. Washington", November 1947
22 "The First Flight to Make Snow" (Manuscript), 1947
23 "The Production of Clouds Containing Supercooled Water Droplets or Ice Crystals under Laboratory Conditions", April 1948
24 "Rates of Evaporation of Water Through Compressed Monolayers on Water", April 1948
25 "The Development of a Snow Classification System", August 1948
26 "Types of Solid Precipitation in Snowstorms", December 1948
27 "International Commission on Snow and Ice Committee on Snow Classification", 1948
Box Folder
25 1 "Up Where the Clouds are Made" (Manuscript), 1948
2 "Scientific Adventures in the Fields, Mountains and Sky", 1948-1949
3 "The Possibilities of Modifying Lightning Storms in the Northern Rockies" (includes annotated maps), January 1949
4 "When the Snow Lays on the Ground" -VJ Schaefer (Manuscript), December 30, 1949
5 "Induced Precipitation and Experimental Meteorology", June 1950
6 "A New Method for Studying the Structure of Glacier Ice" -VJ Schaefer, October 1950
7 "Factors Related to Experimental meteorology", November 1950-December 1950
8 "The Formation of Frigid and Anchor Ice in Cold Weather", December 1950
9 "Snow and Experimental Meteorology", December 1950
10 "Cloud-Seeding Discoverer Stresses Urgency of Federal Control Agency", April 10, 1951
11 "Rain and Rainmaking", May 31, 1951, June 7, 1951
12 "Where Rain Falls All the Time: Including a Plan for Building a Simple Cloud Chamber", May 1951-June 1951
13 "Freezing and Frozen Raindrops" (Manuscript), November 7, 1951
14 "The Ice Borers" (Manuscript), December 10, 1951
15 "Publications" -VJ Schaefer, 1936-1951, Ca. 1951
16 "Rainforests and Shadows" (Manuscript), March 14, 1952
17 "Continuous Cloud Chamber for Studying Small Particles in the Atmosphere", June 1952
18 "Sky Riders of Antiquity" (Manuscript), June 30, 1952
19 "Cloud Forms of the Jet Stream", October 8, 1956
20 "Cloud Forms of the Jet Stream", February 1953
21 "Jet Stream Clouds" (Manuscript), 1953
22 "Earth Movers of the Past" (Manuscript), 1953
23 "Electric Observations of the Formative Stages of the Worchester, Massachusetts Tornado", November 1954
24 "Suggested Program for Further Time Lapse Cloud Photography" (Manuscript), Ca. 1954
25 "Adventures Ahead" (Manuscripts), Undated
26 "Adventures Ahead" (Manuscripts), 1953, Undated
27 "The Beauty that Falls from the Sky" (Manuscript), Undated
28 "The Castles of the Sky" (Manuscript), Undated
29 "Down from the Sky", Undated
30 "The Experimental Apparatus and Procedure" (Incomplete Draft on the Cold Chamber), Undated
31 "The Formation of Snow Crystals on Airborne Dust Particles", Undated
32 "Frozen Volcanoes" (Manuscripts), Undated
33 "Scientific Adventures", Undated
34 "How to Make Snow at Home", Undated
35 "Improved Methods of Conditioning Surfaces for Adsorption" - I. Langmuir (Manuscript), Undated
36 "Langmuir's Role in Conservation Activities", Undated
37 "The Multice II" (Manuscript), Undated
38 "Rambles in an Arizona Desert" (Manuscript), Undated
39 Simple Laboratory Apparatus for the Study of Clouds, Undated
40 "Snow" (Manuscript), Undated
41 "Suggestions Related to a Proposed Thunderstorm Study" (Manuscript), Undated
Subseries 8: Reports & Publications by Others-- General Electric, 1913-1957,, 1968,, 1989,, Undated
Arranged chronologically
Vincent Schaefer welcomed his colleagues’ professional input and used their published works for reference as he refined his own studies. The articles and reports in this subseries are a sampling of findings by scientists like Irving Langmuir, Katharine Blodgett, Bernard Vonnegut, and more. This subseries also includes magazine and brochure types of publications such as G.E.’s Adventures Ahead, booklets about Association Island, and occasional G.E. newsletters. Please note that many of the articles are reprints, which are reflected in the folder dates.
Box Folder
26 1 "The Emissiuty of Oxidized Metallic Surfaces"-C.P. Randolph and M.J. Overholser, August 1913
2 "The Nitrogen Filled Lamp", October 1913
3 "The Flicker of Incandescent Lamps on Alternating Current Circuits and Stroboscopic Effects", March 1914
4 "The Constitution of Liquids with Especial Reference to Surface Tension Phenomena", October 15, 1916
5 "The Condensation Pump: An Improved Form of High Vacuum Pump"- I. Langmuir, Undated
6 "Types of Valence", July 22, 1921
7 "The Mechanism of the Catalytic Action of Platinum in the Reactions of 2CO+O2=2Co2+2H2+O2=2H20", September 21, 1921
8 "Chemical Reactions on Surfaces", July 1922
9 "Thermionic Effects Caused by Alkali Vapors in Vacuum Tubes", January 12, 1923
10 "The Pressure Effect and Other Phenomena in Gaseous Discharges", December 1923
11 "Currents Limited by Space Charge Between Concentric Spheres"-I. Langmuir and K.B. Blodgett, July 1924
12 The Apprentice System of the Schenectady Works, November 1924
13 "Scattering of Electrons in Ionized Gases", November 1925
14 "Flames of Atomic Hydrogen"-Irving Langmuir, March 1926
15 "The Flow of Ions through a Small Orifice in a Charged Plate"-Lewi Tonks-H.M. Mott-Smith Jr. and Irving Langmuir, August 1926
16 "The Theory of Collectors in Gaseous Discharges"-H.M. Mott-Smith and Irving Langmuir, December 1920
17 "On The Surface Heat of Charging"-Lewi Tonks and Irving Langmuir, May 1927
18 "A Method of Measuring the Mean Free Path of Electrons in Ionized Mercury Vapor-K.B. Blodgett, July 1927
19 "The Characteristics of the Tungsten Filaments as Functions of Temperature"-Howard A. Jones and Irving Langmuir, September 1927
20 "Electric Discharges in Gases at Low Pressures", September 1927
21 "The Effect of Monomolecular Films on the Evaporation of Ether Solutions"-I. Langmuir and D.B. Langmuir, January 1928
22 "Atomic Hydrogen as and Acid to Industrial Research"-Irving Langmuir, April 1928
23 "Collisions Between Electrons and Gas Molecules", April 1928
24 "Electric Discharges in Gases at Low Pressures"-Irving Langmuir, December 1928
25 "Electric Discharges in Gases at Low Pressures" -Irving Langmuir, 1928
26 "Contact Potential Measurements with Adsorbed Films", July 1929
27 "General Theory of the Plasma of an Arc"-Lewi Tonks and Irving Langmuir, October 1929
28 "Forces Near the Surfaces of Molecules"-Irving Langmuir, January 1930
29 "Effect of End Lasses on the Characteristics of Filaments of Tungsten and other Materials"-I. Langmuir- S. MacLane-K.B. Blodgett, March 1930
30 "Effect of End Losses or the Characteristics of Filaments of Tungsten and Other Materials"-Irving Langmuir- S. MacLane-K.B. Blodgett, May 1930
31 "Electrical Discharges of Gases, Part I"-Karl T. Compton and Irving Langmuir, June 1930
32 "Selecting the Chemist-Elect"-I. Langmuir, Ca. 1930
33 "Oxygen Films on Tungsten, Part I"-Irving Langmuir and D.S. Villeur, March 1931
34 "Experiments with Oil and Water"-Irving Langmuir, May 1931
35 "A Study of Light Signals in Aviation and Navigation"-I. Langmuir and W.F. Westendarp, November 1931
36 "Regions of Reversed Magnetization in Strained Wires"-I. Langmuir, December 1931
37 "Modern Concepts in Physics", 1931
38 "Study of a Neon Discharge by Use of Collectors", January 15, 1932
39 "Regions of reversed Magnetization in Strained Wires"-I. Langmuir and K.J. Sixtus, January 1932
40 "A Study of Light Signals in Aviation and Navigation"-I. Langmuir and W.F. Westendarp, January 1932
41 "Study of a Neon Discharge by Use of Collectors"- Clifton G.Found and Irving Langmuir, March 1932
42 "Accommodation Coefficient of Hydrogen; A Sensitive Detector of Surface Films"-K.B. Blodgett and I. Langmuir, May 1932
43 "Vapor Pressures, Evaporation, Condensation and Adsorption"-Irving Langmuir, August 1932
44 "Surface Chemistry"-Nobel Lecture Presented in Stockholm, December 14, 1932
45 "An Extension of the Phase Rule for Adsorption Under Equilibrium and Non-Equilibrium Conditions"-I. Langmuir, March 1933
46 "Irving Langmuir, Scientist"-Willis R. Whitney, March 1933
47 "The Nature of Adsorbed Films of Cesium on Tungsten"-Irving Langmuir, April 1933
48 "Irving Langmuir"-Katharine Blodgett, July 1933
49 "Physiological Variations in Certain Crop Plants Following Seed Exposure to High-Voltage X-Rays"- C.N. Moore and C.P. Haskins, July 1933
50 "Copper Embrittlement III"- Wyman, L.L., October 1933
51 "The Evaporation of Atoms, Electrons from Cesium Films on Tungsten"- John B. Taylor and Irving Langmuir, October 1933
52 "Oil Lenses on Water and the Nature of Monomolecular Expanded Films"- Irving Langmuir, December 1933
53 "Surface Chemistry"-Irving Langmuir, December 1933
54 "Monomolecular Films of Fatty Acids on Glass"-Katharine Blodgett, March 1934
55 "Mechanical Properties of Monomolecular Films"-I. Langmuir, August 1934
56 "Science as a Guide in Life"-Irving Langmuir, August 1934
57 "Standard Lamps for the Spherical Photometry of Sodium Arc"-Frank Benford, August 1934
58 "Mechanical Properties of Monomolecular Films"-I. Langmuir, September 1934
59 "Oil Film Whirl-A Non-Whirling Bearing"-Burt L. Newkirk and Lloyd P. Grobel, September 1934
60 "The Design of Tungsten Springs to Hold Tungsten Filaments Taut"-K.B. Blodgett and I. Langmuir, October 1934
61 "Addresses Given in Tokyo, Osaka, Hiroshima, Fukuoka, Sendai, Kyoto (Japan)", November 1934
62 "Electric Discharges in Vacuum and in Gases at Low Pressures"-I. Langmuir-Denki Gaskkwai, November 1934
63 "Fundamental Industrial Research"-I. Langmuir, November 1934
64 "Surface Chemistry"-I. Langmuir, November 1934
65 "Interference Colors in Oil Films on Water"- K.B. Blodgett, January 1935
66 "Films Built by Depositing Successive Monomolecular Layers on a Solid Surface"- K.B. Blodgett, June 1935
67 "Surface Chemistry"- I. Langmuir, September 1935
68 "Mechanical Properties of Matter", August 1935
69 "The Integrating Factor of the Photometric Sphere"-Frank Beneford, October 1935
70 "What are Atoms?"-Irving Langmuir-Harry C. Furston and Buel Rice, April 1936
71 "Duration of Sunshine on Vertical Surfaces"-Bedford-Frank and John E. Back, June 1936
72 "The Heat Conductivity of Tungsten and the Cooling Effects of Heads upon Filaments at the Low Temperatures"-Irving Langmuir and john Bradshaw Taylor, July 1936
73 "Airplane Tracks in the Surface of the Stratus Clouds", September 1936
74 "Two-Dimensional Gases, liquids and Solids"-Irving Langmuir, October 1936
75 "Built-up Films of Barium Stearate and their Optical Properties"-K. Blodgett-I. Langmuir, June 1, 1937
76 "Multilayers of Aerosols and the Adsorption of Digitonin by Deposited Monolayers"-I. Langmuir-V.J. Schaefer-H. Sabotka, September 1937
77 "Properties of Built-up Films Stearate"-K.B. Blodgett, October 1937
78 "Surface Electrification Due to the Recession of Aqueous Solutions from Hydrophobic Surfaces"-I. Langmuir, May 1938
79 "Overturning and Anchoring of Monolayers"-I. Langmuir, June 1938
80 "A Time Analysis of Sunshine"-Frank Benford and John E. Bock, August 1938
81 "Vector Maps and Crystal Analysis", September 1938
82 "The Structure of the Insulin Molecule"-I. Langmuir and D.M. Wrinch, September 1938
83 "Repulsive Forces Between Charged Surfaces in Water and the Cause of the Jones-Ray Effect"-I. Langmuir, November 1938
84 "The Role of Attractive and Repulsive Forces in the Formation of Tactoids, Thixotropic Gels, Protein Crystals, and Coacervates"-Irving Langmuir, December 1938
85 "Effect of X-Rays on Surface Potentials of Multilayers"-I. Langmuir, 1938
86 "The Thunderstorm"- F.A. Evans and K.B. McEachron, 1938
87 "Nature of the Cycol Bond"-I. Langmuir and D. Wrinch, January 14, 1939
88 "Laws and Corollaries of the Black Body"-Frank Benford, February 1939
89 "Use of Interference to Extinguish Reflection of Light from Glass"-K.B. Blodgett, February 1939
90 "Molecular Layers", March 1939
91 "Properties of Structure of Protein Monolayers"-Irving Langmuir and VJ Schaefer, April 1939
92 "Protein Monolayers"-I. Langmuir, June 1939
93 "Illumination from Extended Sources Computed by the Theory of the Integrating Sphere"-Frank Bedford, January 1940
94 "Monolayers on Solids"-I. Langmuir, April 1940
95 "Aerosols: A Selected Bibliography", October 1, 1940
96 "Pressure-Soluble and Pressure-Displaceable Components of Monolayers of Native and Denatured Proteins"- I. Langmuir and D.D. Waugh, October 1940
Oversized Folder
2 2 "Progress of Science in 1940," Dr. A.W. Hull, March 7, 1941
Box Folder
26 97 "Illumination in the Focal Plane"- F. Benford, May 1941
98 List of Publications- Irving Langmuir and Katharine Blodgett, 1906-1942, Ca. 1942
99 The Story of Lightning, 1942
100 "Science, Common Sense and Decency"- I. Langmuir, January 1, 1943
101 "The American Association for the Advancement of Science: Science, Common Sense and Decency", January 1943
102 "Super Cooled Water Droplets in Rising Currents of Cold, Saturated Air", October 1943-August 1944
103 What’s New in the World of Science, 1943
104 "A Lone Scout- The Story of Vincent J. Schaefer, "Ad Run Nationwide by General Electric, Ca. 1943
105 The Monogram, 1943-1945, 1948, 1953
106 "Report on Smokes and Filters," Irving Langmuir and Katharine B. Blodgett, January 1944
107 Aerological Instruments for the Study of Icing and Precipitation Static Problems"-I. Langmuir, October 1944
108 Publications: Irving Langmuir, Katharine Blodgett, and Vincent J. Schaefer, 1906-- (A Bibliography), c.1944
109 "Order Hardening: Its Mechanism and Recognition"-D. Harker, 1944
110 "Super Cooled Water Droplets in Rising Currents of Cold, Saturated Air Part I"-I Langmuir, 1944
111 "Mathematical Investigation of Water Droplet Trajectories", December 1944-July 1945
112 "Mathematical Investigation of Water Droplet Trajectories"-Irving Langmuir, January 1945
113 "The Cooling of Cylinders by Fog Moving at High Velocities", March 1945
114 "Science and Postwar Incentives"-I. Langmuir, May 17, 1945
115 "Final Report on Investigating of Fundamental Phenomena of Precipitation Static"-I. Langmuir, May 1945
116 "Final Report on Icing Research up to July 1, 1945"-I. Langmuir, October 1945
117 "A Mathematical Investigation of Water Droplet Trajectories"-Langmuir and Blodgett-Notes and Charts, 1945-1946
118 "Memorandum on Introduction of Ice Nuclei into Clouds"-I. Langmuir, August 16, 1946
119 The Knolls News, 1946, 1948-1949, 1951
120 "Use of Pitot Tube to Compensate for Pressure Deficiency Caused by Wind on Mount Washington, New Hampshire"-R.E. Falconer, April 1947
121 Project Summary, July 1, 1947
122 Adventures Ahead, 1947
123 Research Laboratory Memo, February 1948
124 "Cloud Chasers"- G.E. Monogram, May 1948-June 1948
125 Research Laboratory Bulletin, June 1948, April 1950, May 1951
126 Research Laboratory Memo, September 1948, February 1949, September 1942
Box Folder
27 1 "Particle Size Determination"-Francis J. Norton, October 1948
2 "The Production of Rain by a Chain Reaction in Cumulus Clouds at Temperatures above Freezing"-I. Langmuir, October 1948
3 "The Research Laboratory Builds a House"- with "Pictorial Supplement", November 1948, October 1950
4 Research Laboratory Foto Facts, November 1948, October 1950
5 Adventures Ahead, 1948
6 Camp General Electric and Association Island, 1948
7 Adventures Inside the Atom- Comic Book, 1948
8 "The Story of Research"- General Electric, Ca. 1948
9 "The Growth of Particles in Smokes and Clouds and the Production of Snow from Supercooled Clouds"-I. Langmuir, 1948
10 "Rate of Nucleation of Solid Particles in a Subcooled Cloud"-J.C. Fisher-J.H. Hollomon-D. Turnbull, February 1949
11 "The Behavior of Water Drops at Terminal Velocity in Air"-D.C. Blanchard (Includes News Clippings), December 1950-March 3, 1949
12 Research Laboratory Memo, June 1949
13 "Super-Cooled Water Droplets in Rising Currents of Cold Saturated Air Parts I and II"-I. Langmuir, June 1949
14 Super-Cooled Water Droplets in Rising Currents of Cold Saturated Air"-I. Langmuir (Includes Notes and Formulas), Undated
15 "Homogenous Nucleation"- D. Turnbull and J.H. Hollomon, September 1949
16 Adventures Ahead, 1949
17 "Experiments with Silver Iodide Smokes in the Natural Atmosphere"-B. Vonnegut, May 1950
18 Story of the Turbine, June 1950
19 "Control of Precipitation from the Cumulus Clouds by Various Seeding Techniques"-I. Langmuir, June 14, 1950
20 "Preliminary Report on the X-Ray Microscope"-C.M. Lacht and D. Harker, July 1950
21 General Electric News Digest, December 10, 1950
22 Research in General Electric 1900-1950, October 9, 1950
23 "Barium Stearate Stepgauge"- K. Blodgett, October 1950
24 Knolls News, October 1950
25 "Preparation of Copy for Lantern Slides and Charts", November 1950
26 "Tests of Direction Selection Color Television Screens"-L.R. Koller and K. Smith, December 1950
27 Adventures Ahead, 1950
28 "Periodicity of Rainfall"-I. Langmuir, 1950
29 More Power to America (Comic Book), 1950
30 "Third Annual Listing Reports Published by Research Lab Publications", January 1951-December 1951
Box Folder
28 1 Knolls News, January 1951
2 Research Laboratory Memo, March 1951
3 Research Laboratory Memo, April 1951
4 "An Hypothesis for the Origin of Cancer Foci", June 1951
5 "Reporting Procedures in the General Electric Research Laboratory"-M. Martin, June 1951
6 Adventures Ahead, September 1951-October 1951
7 Laboratory Activities Developments, October 1951
8 Research Laboratory Memo, October 1951
9 Weatherwise, October 1951
10 "Cloud Seeding by Means of Dry Ice, Silver Iodide, and Sodium Chloride"-Irving Langmuir, November 1951
11 Kinetics of Solidification of Supercooled Liquid Mercury Droplets"-David Turnbull, November 1951
12 "Recent Experiments on the Effect of Ultraviolet Light on Silver Iodide Nuclei"- Bernard Vonnegut and Raymond Neubauer, November 1951
13 Thunderbolts in Harness, 1951
14 "Reproduction of Manuscripts- An Elementary Description of Printing and Duplicating Processes"- Miles J. Martin, March 1952
15 "Detention and Measurement of Aerosol Particles", June 1952
16 "Thin Films of Supersaturated Solutions for Detecting, and Identifying Very Small Crystalline Particles"- B. Vonnegut, June 1952
17 "Screw Dislocations, Etch Figures and Holes", July 30, 1952
18 "Research Laboratory Foto Facts", July 1952
19 "Preparation of Copy for Lantern Slides and Charts for Technical Presentation"- Miles J. Martin, August 1952
20 The Monogram, August 1952
21 Research Laboratory Memo, August 1952
22 Developments (For GE Employees), Summer 1952
23 Adventures Ahead, 1952
24 Knolls Newsletter, January 7, 1953
25 General Electric Review, July 1953
26 "An Electrical Humidistat"- White, W.C., December 1953
27 Adventures Ahead, 1953
28 Why Study English?, 1953
29 Adventures Ahead, 1954
Oversized Folder
2 2 "Should Your Child be a Chemist?" I. Langmuir, 1954
Box Folder
28 30 "Widespread Control of Weather by Silver Iodide Seeding"- I. Langmuir, July 1955
Box Folder
29 1 "The Control of Hurricanes"-I. Langmuir (Manuscript), December 15, 1955
2 "Hurricane Control"-I. Langmuir (Manuscript), December 29, 1955
3 "Freedom: The Opportunity to Profit from the Unexpected"- I. Langmuir, Fall 1956
4 Research Laboratory Digest, Summer 1957
5 "Pathological Science"- I. Langmuir, April 1968, October 1989
6 "The Distribution of Orientation Molecules", Undated
7 "An Objective 30-Day Forecast Method for Precipitation and Temperature at Albany, NY"- R. Falconer, K. Maynard (Abstract), Undated
8 "A Study of High-Voltage Corona Discharger from Points at Atmospheric as a Cause of Radio Interference"- E.J. Lawton, Undated
9 "A Theory for the Behavior of Barium Stearate Monolayers and Multilayers"- D. Harker, Undated
Subseries 9: Reports & Publications by Others-- Non-General Electric, 1901-1953,, 1978,, 1988,, 1993,, Undated
Arranged chronologically
As with the work of his own General Electric co-workers, Schaefer collected articles and reports by colleagues outside of his own institution as well. These are an assortment of publications relating directly to Schaefer’s own work in areas like surface chemistry, ice/snow studies and cloud seeding as well as peripheral interests in the science world that happened to catch his attention. Please note that many of the articles are reprints, which are reflected in the folder dates.
Box Folder
30 1 "Shooting Away Hail-Storms," E.P Lyle, Jr. (Photocopy), June 1901
2 "Meteorological Conditions Affecting the Freeman Lake (Idaho) Fire," G.M. Jemison, January 1932
3 "The Isolation, Identification and Quantitative Determination of Ethyl Alcohol Normally Present in Human and Animal Tissues," A.O Gettler, J.B Niederl, and A.A Benedetti-Pichler, 1932
4 "Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London: Problems of the Boundary State," Sir William Hardy, 1932
5 Snow Research: "Snow Surveying: Its Principles and Possibilities," J.E Church, October 1933
6 "Evaporation at High Altitude and Latitudes," J.E Church, April 1934
7 "Snow Surveys as an Aid to Flood Forecast and Control," J.E Church, June 20, 1935
8 "Principles of Snow Surveying as Applied to Forecasting Stream Flow," J.E Church, July 15, 1935
9 "The Snow Survey and Summer Precipitation," J.E Church, October 1935
10 "The Measurement of "Bound" Water by the Freezing Method," S.S Kistler, June 1936
11 "Measuring Fire Weather and Forest Inflammability," H.T Gisborne, July 1936
12 "The Human Side of Snow: The Saga of Mount Rose Observatory," J.E. Church, February 1937
13 "International Snow," J.E. Church, March 1937
14 "South Continental Divide Snow-Survey Conference": Reports and Papers, July 1937
15 "National Research Council: Transactions of the American Geophysical Union" Washington D.C, August 1938
16 "Contribution to the Knowledge of the Photographic Latent Image and Development Process," L.W. Strock, 1938
17 U.S Department of Agriculture -Weather Bureau "Codes for the Cloud forms and States According to the International System of Classification, 1938
18 "Investigation on Snow, No.13-Window Hoar Crystals on Clean Glass Surfaces," Zyungo Yosida, January 1940
19 "Report on a Laboratory Investigation of "Precipitation Static" Interference as Encountered on Aircraft" R.H. George, April 1940
20 "Visibility Through Haze and Smoke, and a Visibility Meter" w/ Priest River G.D Shallenberger and E.M. Little, April 1940, 1946, 1948
21 "Snow Surveying," J.C. Mass, June 1940
22 "The Effect of a High- Frequency Disturbance on the Direct-Current Corona from a Sharp Point," M. O'Day, August 1940
23 "Portrait of a Snowflake," W. Brinkerhoff, August 1941
24 "A Method of Making Replicas of Snowflakes, Ice Crystals, and Other Short Lived Substances", September 15, 1941
25 "The Melting of Snow," J.E. Church, Proceedings at the Central Snow Conference Volume I, December 1941
26 "Meteorological Studies," J.E Church, 1941
27 "The Human Side of Snow II: Sport and Transport," J.E. Church, March 1942
28 "Western Interstate Snow- Survey Conference"-Reports and Papers by Joint Regional Meeting With Section of Hydrology of American Geophysical Union Pasadena, California, January 16, 1942
29 "Human Side of Snow III: Perennial Snow and Glaciers," J.E. Church, March 1943
30 "The Human Side of Snow IV: Snow Perils and Avalanches" J.E. Church, April 1943
31 "New Smoke Generator," Blurb in The Stevens Indicator, May 1943
32 "Snow- Study Program at Soda Springs Near Donnor Summit of Central Sierra Nevada," J.E. Church, 1943
33 "Three Unusual Runoff Years in the Humboldt Basin, Nevada, 1940-41, 1941-42, and 1942-43," J.E. Church and H.P. Boardman, 1943
34 "Utilization of 'Pore Spaces' of Semi-Permeable Membranes," Moore, William A., December 1, 1944
35 "Effect of High Water- Table in Exaggerating Stream-Flow: Further Analysis of Unusual Year 1942-43 and Analysis for year 1943-44 on Upper Humboldt River Nevada," J.E. Church and H.P. Boardman, 1944
36 "Experientia", M. DeQuervain, January 1, 1945
37 " An Investigation to Determine Anti-Icing Requirements of the K- Type Airship in Flight," (With photos) W.H Hillendahl, K.W. Grace, B.F Jenkins, G.V Whittle, June 14,1945
38 "Icing Report- Vol. I, No. 7", July 1945
39 "Icing Report- Vol. I, No. 8", August 1945-September 1945
40 "Icing Data- Vol. I, No. 9", October 1945
41 "Icing Report-Vol. I, No. 10", November 1945
42 "The Basic Mechanisms of Static Electrification," L.B. Loeb, December 7, 1945
43 "The Water Analogy of Supersonic Air Flow," R.H Johnson, December 13, 1945
44 "The Intertropical Convergence Zone of the Eastern Pacific Region (I)," L. Alpert, December 1945
45 "Light Transmission and Water Content in Clouds" H.J Aufru Kampe, 1945
46 "A Note on the Rate of Morphogenetic Movement in the Slime Mold, Dictyostelium Discoideum," Bonner and Eldredge, 1945
47 "Über monomolekulare Filme an wassergrenxflächen und über Schichtfilme," Trurnit, H.J, 1945
48 "Whiteface Mountain-Icing Severity During Helicopter Rotor Blade Tests Compared with Actual Flight," V. Clark, 1945
49 "An Investigation to Determine Anti-Icing Requirements of the K-Type Airship in Flight"- Photos and Emergency Bills, 1945-1947
50 "Icing Report, Vol. I No. 11"- Mt. Washington Observatory, December 1945
51 "Icing Report-Vol. II, No. 2", February 1946
52 "Artic North America, Program for Possible Scientific Investigations," Arctic Institute of North America Bulletin No. 1, March 1946
53 "Icing Report- Vol. II, No. 3", March 1946
54 "Icing Report-Vol. II, No. 4", April 1946
55 "The Effect of Impurities in Water on Ice Adhesion," R. Smith-Johannsen, May 9, 1946
56 "Selection, Installation and Operation of Seismographs," U.S Dept. of Commerce, 1946
57 "Icing Report- Vol. II, No. 5", May 1946
58 "Lightning Discharges to Aircraft and Associated Meteorological Conditions" Tech. Note #1001 by L.P. Harrison, May 1946
59 "Notes on the Weather and Climate of Seymour Island, Galapagos Archipelago," L. Alpert, May 1946
60 "An Mean Hurricane Sounding for the Caribbean Area" by Elmer J. Schacht, June 1946
61 Snow Research: Western Snow Conference- Research Committee on Snow, Report of J.E. Church and Others, June 1946
62 "Comparison of Formation of Ice and Water Particles, Vol. II, No. 8," W. Schwerdtfeger, August 1946
63 "Basis High Voltage De-Icing," Hamacher, September 1946
64 "Suitability of Disc and Cone for Ice Layer Measuring by Aerodynamic Drag" R. Bottger; Air Material Command Transaction, September 1946
65 "Visibility and Water Content in Clouds, Vol.II," H.J Aufru Kampe), September 1946
66 "Statistical Structure of Ice and Ammonium Fluoride" and "X-Ray Examination of Hail," K. Lonsdale, October 26, 1946
67 Weather, September 1946
68 "Amount of Energy Needed for De-Icing Equipment"- Report No.4 of the Experiment Group "Ice Accretion," Ritz-Hentrich, October 1946
69 "Status of Carbon Black Agglomeration Project"- Progress Report Carperton Horaley, William Van Allen, Gordon Seavey, Alan Smith, December 20, 1946
70 "First Technical Report Under Signal Corps Project", December 31, 1946
71 "Experimental Investigations in Formation of Ice and Water Nuclei at Low Temperatures. Inferences Regarding the Growth of Atmospheric Ice Crystals," (With Photos) Weickmann, 1946
72 "Hot- Air Discharge for De-Icing-Über das Ausblasen Von Warmluft für Enteiser," K. Wieghardt, December 1946
73 "Diurnal Variation of Cloudiness over the Subtropical Atlantic Ocean," Herbert Riehl, January 1947
74 "An Analytical Investigation of the Heat Losses from a U.S. Navy K-Type Airship," W.H. Hillendahl and R.E. George, February 17, 1947
75 "An Example of Colloidal Instability of Clouds in Tropical Latitudes" by W.J. Kotsch, February 1947
76 "Diurnal Variation of Moisture and Stability Aloft in the Vicinity of San Juan, Puerto Rico" by Herbert Riehl, March 1947
77 "Ground Pressure Tests on Landing Skis," J. Skydow, March 1947
78 "Preliminary analysis of NACA Measurements of Atmospheric Turbulence within a Thunderstorm-U.S Weather Bureau Thunderstorm Project," H.B.Tolefson, March 1947
79 "Immunological Reactions Between Films of Antigen and Antibody Molecules," Alexander Rothen, April 1947
80 "Earth Motion from the Atomic Bomb Test," L. Don Left, Spring 1947
81 "Snow as an Environmental Factor in the West," Phil E. Church, April 1947
82 "NACA Conference on Aircraft Ice Prevention", June 26, 1947-June 27, 1947
83 "An Air Tester" by P. R. Zealley, June 1947
84 "The War Against Hail," M. Mann, June 1947
Oversized Folder
2 3 "Vroman's Nose Twitched"- Poem, Anonymous, July 3, 1947
Box Folder
30 85 "Precipitation Affected by Solar Variation," C.G. Abbot, August 11, 1947
86 "A Revised Analysis of Solar- Constant Values," C.G. Abbot, August 30, 1947
87 "Artificial Stimulation of Rain Formation," J.K. Bannon, August 1947
88 Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, September 1947
89 "Harmonic Analysis of the Diurnal Variations of Pressure and Temperature Aloft in the Eastern Caribbean," B. Haurwritz, September 1947
90 "Internal Waves in the Atmosphere and Convection Patterns," B. Haurwritz, September 1947
91 "Technical Report#3- Standard Operational Procedures" by Edwin L. William and George A. Wilson, October 1, 1947
92 "Evidence for the Formation of Cell Aggregates by Chemotaxis in the Development of the Slime Mold Dictyostelium Discoideum," John Tyler Bonner, October 1947
93 "The Sailplane for Cloud Seeding Studies," Aerophysics Institute Inc., November 1947
94 "Measurement of Rainfall by Radar," J.S. Marshall, R.C. Langille and W. McK. Palmer, December 1947
95 "Cloud Modification Report," Sampson & Chipman, December 1947
96 "Ein Schubmesser für monomolekulare Filme" Hans Joachim Trurnit, 1947
Box Folder
31 1 "Snow as an Environmental Factor in the West," J.E. Church, 1947
2 "Snow Survey Versus Winter Precipitation for Forecasting Runoff of the Tuolumne River, California," H.P. Boardman, 1947
3 "Testing of Production- Scale Anti-Icing System in the ME210 Airplane-Fifth Part," Bosch, 1947
4 "Notes on the Areal Distribution of Annual Mean Rainfall Over the Tropical Eastern pacific Ocean," L. Alpert, January 1948
5 "The Static Electrification of Dust Clouds," J.G. Miller, H. Heineman, W.S.W. McCarter, February 6, 1948
6 "The Weather: Not Much Change," Kiplinger Magazine, March 22, 1948
7 "Aircraft Icing Instruments: Instruments for Measuring Atmospheric Factors Related to ice Formation on Airplanes," R.E. Katz and R.M. Cunningham, March 1948
8 "Radar Weather Observations in the Vicinity of Johannesburg" P. Meerholz, April 1948
9 "The Production of Snow and Rain in Cloudy Skies," Report of the Kansas State Board of Agriculture, April 1948
10 "A Report on Thunderstorm Conditions Affecting Flight Operations," Weather Bureau, April 1948
11 "Das Korngefüge von Schnee," De Quervain, Dr. M., May 1948
12 "An Objective Method of Forecasting Visibility," J.E. Miller and H.T. Mantis, May 1948
13 "Influence of Butyl Alcohol on Shape of Snow Crystals Formed in the Laboratory," B. Vonnegut, June 6, 1948
14 Technical Note- "Analysis & Preliminary Design of an Optical Instrument for the measurement of Drop Size & Free Water Content of Clouds," Willem J.R Malkus, Richard H. Bishop, and Ribert O. Briggs (NACA), June 1948
15 Journal of Meteorology Vol. 5, No.3, June 1948
16 "Canadian Survey of Physical Characteristics of Snow-Covers," Klein, G.J., June 1948
17 "Weather Radar Research"- Eleventh Progress Report, August 14, 1948
18 "Casting Techniques for Polyesters," W. Weeks, August 1948
19 "Long Range Enzymatic Action on films of Antigen," Alexandre, Rothen, August 1948
20 "A Study of Wing De-Icer Performance on Mount Washington," B.F. Goodrich Co., September 1948
21 "Quarterly Bulletin of the National Research Council of Canada Aeronautical Laboratories", September 30, 1948
22 "The Chemist Analyst", September 1948, June 1950, Undated
23 "Inlet Icing and Effectiveness of Hot- Gas Bleedback for Ice Protection of Turbojet Engine,"William Fleming and Martin J. Saari(NACA), November 26, 1948
24 "The Freezing of Supercooled Water," N.E. Dorsey, November 1948
25 "The Question of Establishing United Nations Research Laboratories", December 1948
26 "A Thermal Precipitator for Sparse Dispersions of Aerosols," E.R. Harrington and W.D. Crozier, December 1948
27 "In Argentine Tierra del Fuego: Notes on a Tour" J.E. Church, 1948
28 "Ueber Den Abbau Der Alpinen Schneedecke" Quervain, Marcel de, 1948
29 "Solar Activity, the Ozone Layer, and the Lower Atmosphere" B. Haurwitz, c.1948
30 Reports on Snow Making in Algeria, 1948-1950
31 "Extrait des Comptes rendus des seances de l'Academie des Sciences", January 3, 1949
32 "Etude, par diffaction Electronique, des Vapeurs d'iodure d'argent" by J-J Trillat et A. Laloeuf, January 1949
33 "Icing Problems of the Airlines" D. North, January 1949
34 "Investigation of Meteorological Conditions Associated with Aircraft Icing in Layer- Type Clouds" D.B. Kline, January 1949
35 "Equatorial Flow Patterns" L. Alpert, January 10, 1949
36 "Können Wir es Wirklich Regen Lassen!" H. Weickmann, January 1949
37 "On Energy Equations for the Atmosphere" J.E.Miller, January 1949
38 "Effects of Wind Shear on Same Aspects of Convention" Joanne Starr Malkus, February 1949
39 "Weather Radar Research"- Progress Report #4, February 1949-May 1949
40 "An Ominous Drought" H.P.Gillette, March 1949
41 "Recommended Values of Meteorological Factors to be Considered in the Design of Aircraft Ice-Prevention Equipment, Tech.Note" #1855" Alum R. Jones and William Lewis, March 1949
42 "A Review of Instruments Developed for the Measurement of the Meteorological Conducive to Aircraft Icing", April 26, 1949
43 "Science and Adventure," J.E. Church, April 26, 1949
44 "Extended Applications of the Hote Wire Anemometer," Stanley Corrsin- Tech. Note #1864, April 1949
45 "Hail Damage to Stimulated DC-6 and Convair Leading Edges Under laboratory Conditions and Development of a Suitable Hail Catcher," American Airlines, May 3, 1949
46 "On the Measurement and Nature of Atmospherics Produced by Electric Dischargers in Snow Squalls and from other sources," H. Norinder, May 1949
47 "Observations of Icing Conditions Encountered in Flight During 1948" Tech. Note #1904" Williams Lewis and Walter H. Hoecker Jr.), June 1949
48 "The Pulse Integrator: Description of the Instrument and its Circuitry," Tech. Note #8 Edwin L. Williams Jr. (MIT), August 1, 1949
49 "Appraisal of Water Resources: Research in Artificial Precipitation," J.L. Orr, August 17, 1949
Oversized Folder
2 3 "Scientist Predicts World Weather Control," A.M. Low, August 28, 1949
Box Folder
31 50 "Four Series of Weather Cycles which Presage a Dry Fall and Winter," H.P. Gillette, September 1949
51 "Intermittent Heating for Protection in Aircraft Icing," Miron Tribus, September 1949
52 "Analysis of the audio-Frequency Fluctuations in Radar Storm Echoes: A Key to the Relative Velocities if the Precipitation Particles" Tech. Note#9 by Glenn R. Hilst, November 1, 1949
53 "The Effect of Geologic Inequalities on the Path of Lightning, as Indicated by Model Experiments," N. Horinder and O.N. Salka, November 1949
54 "Marine Meteorology" J.S. Malkus, A.F. Bunker, K. McCasland, November 1949
55 "A Measurement of the Scattering of Radio Waves From Small Spheres" V.D. Burgmann and R.B. Coulson, December 1949
56 "Die Eisphase in der Atmosphäre" H. Weickmann, 1949
57 Letters to the Editor reprints J.E. Church, 1949, Undated
58 "The Measurement of Daylight" (With accompanying letters) W.F. Davidson, 1949
59 U.S Department of Interior "A Progress Report on an Investigation of the Influence of Reforestation on Stream Flow", 1949
60 "Method of Forecasting Precipitation Onset Time in Winter" Peter E. Kraght, 1949, 1950
61 Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, January 1950
62 Snow Research: Micro-Notes, Vol.5, No.1, January 1950-March 1950
63 Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, February 1950
64 "Visibility and Liquid Water Content in Clouds in the Free Atmosphere" H.J. Aufm Kampe, February 1950
65 "Instrumentation of a B-17 Aircraft for Weather Radar Flights," Tech. Report #10 Harry Dresios, March 1, 1950
66 "Ice Protection for Turbojet Transport Airplane" P.T Hacker and Others, March 24,1950
67 "Meteorology as a General Factor in Air-Pollution Problems" N.R. Beers, March 1950
68 Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, April 1950
69 "The Glacial AntiCyclone Theory Examined in the Light of Recent Meteorological data from Greenland--Part 2" F.E. Matthes and Arthur D. Belmont, April 1950
70 "Extrait des Cannales de Geophysique" H. Dessens, E.m. Fournier d'Albe and Charles Maurain, April 1950-June 1950
71 Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, May 1950
72 "A Model of a Tropical Cyclone in the Steady State" H.T. Mantis, May 1950
73 "Physical Chemical Factors Involved in Atmospheric Phase Transitions" H. Reiss, May 1950
74 "Developments in Meteorology: Centenary Celebrations of the Royal Meteorological Society", June 3, 1950
75 "Leak Detector Using Ionization Vapor current Leak Detection Principle" D.J. Santelar, June 28, 1950
76 "The Atomic Structure of Water and some of its Manifestations" W.A Weyl, June 1950
77 Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, June 1950
78 "An Investigation of the Freezing of Water in Exposed Pipe Lines" T.M. Riddick, N.L. Lindsay, A. Tomassi, June 1950
79 "Investigation of Stratosphere Winds and Temperatures from Acoustical Propagation Studies" A.P. Crary, June 1950
80 "On the Rate of Evaporation and Condensation of Falling Drops" M. Tsuji, June 1950
81 "Photomicrographic Investigation of Spontaneous Freezing Temperatures of Supercooled Water Droplets" Tech. Note #2412, Robert G. Dorsch and Paul T. Hacker, July 1950
82 "Weather Radar Research-Progress Report #1", July 1950-September 1950
83 "Beam Width and Pulselength in Radar Weather Detection" Tech. Note #12, A.E. Bent, P.M. Austin and M.L Stone, August 1, 1950
84 "Studies on Polydispersity & Nucleation" Victor. K. La Mer, August 1950
85 "Weather Radar Research"- Progress Report #20, August 1950-November 1950
86 "Physical Chemical Factors Involved in Atmospheric Phase Transitions" H.Reiss and H. Saltsburg, September 15, 1950
87 "On the Interaction of Protein Films" A. Rothen, September 22, 1950
88 "Smoke Pall might have Caused Extra Heavy Rains" Wadsworth Likely, September 26,1950
89 Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, September 1950
90 "Quantum-Mechanical Resonance between Identical Molecules" H. Jehle, September 1950
91 "Physical Chemical Factors Involved in Atmospheric Phase Transitions" H. Reiss and H. Saltsburg, September 15, 1950-December 15, 1950
92 "Kinetics of Nucleation in Atmospheric Phase Transitions", October 1950
93 "Weather Radar Research"- Progress Report#2, October 1950-December 1950
94 "Air Coupled Flexural Waves in Floating Ice", November 1950
95 "A Balsa-Dust Technique for Air-Flow Visualization and Its Application to Flow Through Model Helicopter Rotors in Static Thrust" (M.K. Taylor), November 1950
96 Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, November 1950
97 Current Science and Aviation Vol.36, No.9, November 6, 1950-November 10, 1950
98 "High Altitude Meteorological Balloon Techniques" H.N. Edwards, November 1950
99 "The Northeast Trade of the Pacific Ocean" H. Riehl, T.C Yeh, J.S. Malkus, N.E. La Seur, November 1950
100 "Push-Button Weather…Fact or Fancy?" Roscoe Fleming, November 1950
101 "Cloud-Seeding Experiments in the Santa Ana Watershed and Escondido Drainage Area" J.A. Bottle, November 1950-April 1950
Box Folder
32 1 Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, December 1950
2 "The Performance of the British Grid System in Thunderstorms" J.S. Forrest, December 1950
3 "Proceedings of the Conference on Ionospheric Research", December 1950
4 "Statistical Explanation of Spontaneous Freezing of Water Droplets"- Tech. Note #2234 Joseph Levine, December 1950
5 "Total Hemispheric Radiometers" J.T. Gier and R.V. Dunkle, December 1950
6 Upper Atmosphere Ice Detection "Signal Corps Research-Final Report", December 1950-May 1951
7 "Report on Cloud Seeding Operation in Southeast Arizona", December 1950-October 1951
8 Air Pollution in Washington State- Report With Letter, 1950-March 19. 1951
9 "Condensation Nuclei and Meteorological Elements in Dublin" P.J. Nolan and O.G. Tedde, 1950
10 "Das Waschstum der Kondensationskerne mit der relativen Feuchtigkeit" C. Junge, 1950
11 "A Determination of the Velocity of Light" Bergstand, Erik, 1950
12 Die Festigkeitseigenschaften der Schneedecke und Ihre Messung Quervan, Marcel de, 1950
13 "Lluvia Artificial", 1950
14 "Snow Cover, Its Formation and Properties" G.D. Rikhterm translated by W. Mandel, 1950
15 "Studies on Niobium and Tantalum-Parts 1 and 2" N.R. Srinivasan, 1950
16 "Rain Making and South Dakota's Need for Water" Charles Gardner, January 2, 1951
17 "Facts about Increasing Precipitation through Cloud Seeding", January 1951
18 Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, January 1951
19 "Weather Radar Research"- Progress Report #3, January 1951-March 1951
20 "Direction Finding & Ranging on Atmospherics" W.J. Kessler and S.E. Smith, February 1, 1951
21 "Special Radar Scope Cameras" Myron G.H. Ligda, February 1, 1951
22 Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, February 1951
23 Electron-Microscope Study of Fog Nuclei Daisuke Kuroiwa, February 1951
24 "Cloud Seeding" A New Technology E. Bollay, R.D. Elliot and P.B. MacCready, February 1951
25 "Facts on Rain-Making", February 1951
26 "Niederschlag aus Kumuluswolken durch Künstliche Keime" With letter (H. Kleiner), February 1951, November 1951
27 Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, March 1951
28 "Meteorological Analysis of Icing Conditions encountered in Low-Altitude Stratiform Clouds" Dwight B. Kline & Joseph A. Walker, March 1951
29 "Should the U.C Government Control Rain Makers?"- Debate between Clinton P. Anderson and Wallace E. Howell, March 1951
30 Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, April 1951
31 "A Comparison of Icing Conditions on Mount Washington with those Encountered in Flight" Wallace E. Howell, April 1951
32 "Some Evaluations of Sustained Cloud Seeding Operations" I.P. Krick and T.B. Smith, April 1951
33 "Le Soleil Bleu de Septembre 1950" H. Dessens, April 1951, June 1951
34 "Weather Radar Research"-Progress report #4, April 1951-June 1951
35 Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, May 1951
36 Research Reviews-Office of Naval Research, Department of the Navy, May 1951
37 "The Disdrometer-An Instrument for Measuring the Distribution of Raindrop Sizes Encountered in Flight"-Tech. Report #13 A.C. Bemis, June 1, 1951
38 "Comparison of Radar Signal Intensity with Precipitation Rate"-Tech.Report#14 Pauline M. Austin and Edwin L. Williams Jr., June 1, 1951
39 "A Radar Installation for Weather Radar Research"-Tech. Report #15 Alan C. Benis and Edwin L. Williams Jr., June 1, 1951
40 Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, June 1951
41 "A Recorder for an Airborne Liquid Water Content Measuring Instrument"- Tech Report#16 C.E Jensen, A.C. Benis, R. M Cunningham, July 15, 1951
42 "Airborne Particle Study- Status Report for Quarter Ending 30 June 1951", June 30, 1951
43 "A Raindrop Spectrograph" E.G Bowen and K.A. Davidson, July 1951
44 "The Canadian Snow Survey 1947-1950", August 1951
45 Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, September 1951
46 "Comparison of Heat Transfer from Airfoil in Natural and Simulated Icing Conditions"-Tech.Note#2480 Thomas F. Gelder and James P. Lewis, September 1951
47 Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, October 1951
48 "Contributions to the Theory of the Constitution of Clouds", October 1951
49 "A Bibliography on Snow & Ice" D.C. Pearce, October 1951
50 "Experimental Values of the Surface Tension of Supercooled Water"-Tech.Note #2510 Paul Hacker, October 1951
51 "Interpretations of the Fluctuation Echo from Randomly Distributed Scatterers" P.R. Wallace, October 1951
52 Progress Report #6, October 1951-December 1951
53 "X-Ray Diffraction Study of the Internal Structure of Supercooled Water"-Tech. Note #2532 Robert Dorsch & Bemrose Boyd, October 1951
54 "Forward Angle Scattering Aerosol Camera" Pui-Kum Lee, November 30, 1951
55 "Pile Foundations for Large Towers on Permafrost" L.E. Nees, November 1951
56 "Some Observations of Natural Precipitation Processes" Robert M. Cunningham, November 1951
57 Monogram Magazine, November 1951-December 1951
58 "Report on Cloud Seeding Experiments in the San Diego County and the Santa Ana River Watershed", November 1951-April 1952
59 Report of Cloud Seeding Operation in Santa Barbara County", November 1951-May 1952
60 "Catalysis and Olfaction" J. Alexander, December 21, 1951
61 "A New Method for Calculating Water Droplet Trajections & Streamlined Bodies"- University of Michigan Report, December 1951
62 "Report of Cloud Seeding Experiments in Santa Clara County"- Weather Modification Company, December 1951-March 1952
63 "Die auBergewöhnlichen scheneefälle vom Januar und Februar 1951 in den Schweizer Alpen undihre Folgen" M. de Quervain and Th. Zingg, 1951
64 "Evaluation of Cloud Seeding Operations of the Water Resource Development Corporation of Denver" J. Kaplan, 1951
65 "Facts About Increasing Precipitation Through Cloud Seeding", 1951
66 "The Dielectric Behavior of Snow Cover" Kuroiwa, Daisuke, 1951
67 "Lluvia Artificial"- Includes Summary of Report in English (Dr. Siliceo), 1951
68 ""On Methodology of Evaluating Cloud Seeding Operations" Jeeves, LeCam, Neyman and Scott, 1951
69 MIT Department of Meteorology-Progress Report #5 Contract #DA-36-039-SC124, 1951
70 "Storm Over Rain-Making" W.H. White, 1951
71 "Über electronmikroskopische abbildung lebender Zähne mit Hilre des Polymerisationabdruckverfahrens" S. Mennenöh and M.Fahnenbrock, 1951
72 "The Use of Radar in Weather Forecasting with Particular Reference to Radar Set AN/CPS-9", 1951
73 Weather Engineering for Industry, 1951
74 "Zur Entstehung der Lawinen" de Quervain, Dr. M., 1951
75 "Department of Interior Geological Survey New York Cooperative Snow Survey", January 7, 1952-January 9, 1952
76 "Modern Icing Technology"- Lecture Notes, Myron Tribus, January 1952
77 "Weather Radar Research"- Progress Report #7, January 1952-March 1952
78 "Some Characteristics of Stratiform Clouds Over North Ireland in Relation to their Precipitation" B.J. Mason and B.P. Howorth, April 1952
79 "Small Experiences on Centimeter-Wavelength Scattering Small Obstacles" N.R. Labrum, April 10, 1952
80 "The Distribution and Growth of hydrometeors around a Deep Cyclone"- Tech. Report #18 Robert Cunningham, May 9, 1952
81 "Analysis of the Imoactometer an Instrument for Measuring the Distribution of Raindrop Sizes Encountered in Flight"- Tech. Report #19 Bronislaw Smulowicz, May 16, 1952
82 "A Study of the Amplitude Distribution Function for Radar Echoes from Precipitation"-Tech. Report #17 Pauline M. Austin, May 31, 1952
83 "Weather Radar Research"- Progress Report #8, June 30, 1952
84 "Atmospheric Salt Particles and Raindrops" A.H. Woodcock, June 1952
85 "The February Minimum in Hawaiian Rainfall as a Manifestation of the Primary Index-Cycle of the General Circulation" J. Namias & W.A. Mordy, June 1952
86 "Design of an Icing Wind Tunnel" J.A. Nichols, R.B. Morrison, M. Tribus, A. Weir Jr., June 1952
87 "Local Weather of the Chicama Valley" (W.E. Howell), June 1952
88 "Evaluation of Cloud Seeding for the Niagara-Mohawk Power Cp." W.E. Howell, June 1952-November 1952
89 "Artificial and Natural Shower Formation" Ludlam. F.H, July 1952
90 "Australian Experiments on Artificial Stimulation of Rainfall" E.G. Bowen, July 1952
Box Folder
33 1 "Report on Bonneville Power Administration Cloud Seeding Operations", July 1952
2 "Evaluation of Cloud Seeding in Louisiana & Mississippi", July 1952-December 1952
3 MASE Newsletters, August 13, 1952, August 20, 1952
4 "Mechanism of Standard Development of Aircraft Crash Fires" Irving Pinkel, G. Merritt Preston and Gerars Pesman, August 28, 1952
5 "Cloud Seeding Operations in the Connecticut valley for the Disaster Relief & Research Administration, Inc.", August 1952
6 "Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences", September 1952
7 "Climate Control through Ionization" Martin, Thomas L., October 1952
8 "Observations of the Rate of Growth of ice Crystals Artificially Produced in the Atmosphere" G. Yamamoto, S. Ogiwara, K. Yoshida, A. Minura, T. Okita, T. Ohtake, October 1952
9 "The Production of Showers by the Growth of Ice Particles" Ludlam, F.H., October 1952
10 "Some Aspects of the Peruvian Rainfall Climate" Howell Wallace E. and Paul Putnins, October 1952
11 MIT Department of Meteorology-Progress Report#10 Contract# D-36-039-SC-124 Alan C. Bemis, October 1, 1952
12 "Increasing Water Resources through Weather Modification" Irving P. Krick, November 1952
13 "How to keep Pollution out of Streams" Kenneth S. Watson, November 1952
14 "Evaluation of Cloud Seeding for the Water and Power Co. in the St. Maurice River Watershed", November 1952-December 1952
15 "Evaluation of the Cloud Seeding on the Androscoggin River Watershed for the Brown Company" W.E. Howell, November 1952-December 1952
16 "Critical Supercooling of Pure Water Droplets by a new Microscope Technique" G.M. Pound, Madonna Peake, December 1952
17 "Evaluation of Cloud Seeding Activities in Peru (Roland J. Boncher), December 1952
18 "Salt Nuclei in Marine Air as a Function of Altitude and Wind Force" Alfred H. Woodcock, December 1952
19 "The Scattering of Radiowaves by Meteorological Particles" N.R. Labrum, December 1952
20 "An Appraisal of Cloud Seeding as a Means of Increasing Precipitation", 1952
21 "A Condensation Nuclei Counter with Photographic Recording" L.W. Pollack, 1952
22 "Grossversuch zur Bekämpfung des Hagels auf der Magadincebene", 1952
23 "Counting Large Sodium-Containing Particles in the Atmosphere by their Speetral Emission in a Hydrogen Flame" B. Vonnegut and R.L. Neubauer, 1952
24 "The Properties of Liquid Phase Embryos at the Intersections of Plane Solid Surfaces" R.G. Wylie, 1952
25 "The Storm of July 8, 1951 in North Central Illinois", 1952
26 "Studies of Thunderstorm Rainfall with Dense Rainage Network & Radar" H.E. Hudson, G.E. Stout, F.A. Huff, 1952
27 "Climatological Analysis of Cloud Seeding Experiments during the Second Year of the Experimental Period in Israel" N. Rosenan, December 1952
28 "A Technique for Tagging & Tracing Air Parcels" Braham, Seely and Crozier, December 1952
29 "The Growth of Cloud Drops by Condensation" Squires P., 1952
30 "Sampling of Condensation Nuclei by Means of a Mobile Photo-Electric Counter" L.W. Pollack and T. Murphy, 1952
31 "Process Arctic Snow?", January 31, 1953
32 "Program from the American Meteorological Society's 20th National Meeting- 33rd Annual Business", January 26, 1953-January 27, 1953
33 Final Report- Theoretical Cloud Physics, January 31, 1953
34 Bulletin of the Observatory of Puy de Dome, January 1953
35 "The Information Contained in Weather Noise"- Tech. Report #22 Fleisher, January 1953
36 "Iodine"- Abstracts and reviews, January 1953-April 1953
37 "Rainfall Stimulation Potential" Walter Dydiw, February 1953
38 "Cube-Root-Normal Precipitation Distributions", February 1953
39 "A Selected Bibliography of French Reports in the Field of Aircraft Icing" M. Tribus, March 1953
40 "The Potential Usefulness of Natural Tritium" W.F.Libby, April 1953
41 "Icing Detectors", March 1953
42 "Meteorological Design Requirements for icing Protection Systems" D. Fraser, March 1953
43 "A Charter for Climatology", March 1953
44 "Earthquake Notes" Donn and Jennemann, March 1953
45 "Calculations on drop Size Growth and Supersaturation on Air in an Icing Wind Tunnel" Myron Tribus and J. Klein, March 1953
46 "Eidgenoessisches Volkswirtschaftsdepartment", March 1953
47 "On the Growth of Snow Flake and Graupel" C. Magono, March 1953
48 "Recent Studies on Tropical Meteorology", March 1953
49 "Evidence of Man-Made Climatic Change" Irving Krick, April 1953
50 "Cloud Seeding May Turn Wheels from P.G & E from Electric Light & Power", April 1953
51 "Electric-Microscope Study of Atmospheric Condensation Nuclei" Kuroiwa, April 1953
52 "Extended Use of the Double Mass Curve" Carroll F. Merriam, April 30, 1953
53 "A Balloon Fog Meter and the Vertical Distribution of Liquid Water Contents in Lower Atmosphere" Kuroiwa and Kinosita, April 1953
54 "The Turbulent Diffusion of Fog Water near the Ground and the Fog-Preventing Effect of an Artificial Model Forest" Kuroiwa, April 1953
55 "Summary Evaluation of Cloud Operations in Cuba", April 1953
56 "Wind Force on a Conifer Tree and the Quantity of Fog Water Thereby Captured" Zyungo Yosida and Daisuke Kuroiwa, April 1953
57 "Marine Meteorology-Some Results of a Trade Cumulus Cloud Investigation" Joanne Starr Malkus, May 1953
58 "Tomorrow's Weather", May 1953
59 "Dallas Cloud Seeding Operations" Irving P. Krick, June 9, 1953
60 "It's Done with Mirrors" Matthews, C.F., Summer 1953
61 "Distribution of Solar Energy over the United States" I.F. Hand, July 1953
62 "Turbulence in Clouds as a factor in Precipitation" East and Marshall, July 1953
63 "A Theory of Snow Crystal Habit & Growth" J.S. Marshall M.P. Langleben, July 1953
64 "The Distribution of Rain in Tropical Storms" C.S. Ramage, August 1953
65 "Rockets and Rainmaking" Leon Slawecki, September 1953
66 "Uniformly Conductive Surfaces", September 1953
67 "Quarterly"-Tech. Report #2, September 15, 1953
68 "Maximum Evaporation Rates of Water Droplets Approaching Obstacles in the Atmosphere Under Icing Conditions"-Tech. Note #3024 Herman H. Lowell, October 1953
69 Weatherwise Magazine, October 1953
70 "Atmospheric Oscillation & Related Synoptic Patterns"- Tech. Report on Meteorology #1, D. William, R. Rommer, F. Press, M. Ewing, November 1953
71 "Sea Salt Nuclei Studies", December 1953
72 "Algal Culture" (J.S. Berlin), July 15, 1953
73 "Radar Observation of Rain from Non-Freezing Clouds" R.S. Styles and F.W. Campbell, 1953
74 "On the Ice Crystals Nuclei and other Substances found in Snow Crystal" K. Isono, c.1953
75 "The Influence of Volcanic Dust on Precipitation" K. Isono and M. Komabaysi, c.1953
76 "Early History of Cloud Seeding" B.S. Havens, J.E. Jiusto and B. Vonnegut, 1978
77 "Langmuir-Blodgett Films" V.K. Agarwal, June 1988
Oversized Folder
2 3 "Sky Island: A View of Vrooman's Nose," Laura Ten Eyck, March 25, 1993
Box Folder
33 78 Air Pollution Conference Report, Undated
79 "A Comparison of Icing Conditions on Mt. Washington with Those Encountered in Flight" W.E. Howell, Undated
80 "Concentration of Ice Crystal Nuclei under Various Weather Conditions" W.E. Hubert and H.J. Wells, Undated
81 "The Formation of Snow Crystals: Results of Snow Investigation at Aerological Observatory at Friedrichschafen- 1940-1943" E. Wall, Undated
82 "Economic Significance of Snowfall and Snow Retention on Western Watersheds" W.W. McLaughlin, Undated
83 "Frazil Ice Trouble at Chicago's New Filtration Plant" W.W. DeBerard, Undated
84 "Indian Studies Rain Making as Aid to Food Production", Undated
85 "La Pluie Artificielle" J. Roulleau, Undated
86 "Meteorological Conditions at Selected Airports in Canada Newfoundland and Labrador", Undated
87 "Meteorological Problems in Forecasting Mountain Waves" DeVer Colson, Undated
88 "On the Methodology of Evaluating Cloud Seeding Operations" Jeeves, LeCam, Neyman, Scott, Undated
89 "Periodic Fluctuations in the Ohio Basin Moisture Balance" W.E. Hubert and H.J. Wells, Undated
90 "The Problem of Artificial Control of Rainfall on the Globe" Tor Bergeron, Undated
91 "Selection of Meteorological Quantities for the Design of Thermal Ice-Prevention Equipment" A.R. Jones and W. Lewis, Undated
92 "The Water Equivalent of Snow on Ground" C.A. Mixer, Undated
Series 2: General Electric- Project Cirrus, 1943-1954, , 1981, , Undated 9.5 cubic ft.
Arranged alphabetically, with the exception of the reports and publications which are chronological.
In 1952, General Electric published its own “History of Project Cirrus”, compiled by Barrington Havens of G.E.’s public relations department. In his introduction, he writes that “[Project Cirrus] was very complex, with a number of subdivisions associated with the main activity. Some of these subdivisions ran consecutively, some operated in parallel, and others intertwined or branched off in variously divergent directions.” This preface is relevant to Schaefer’s own collection of materials because the “intertwined” nature of Cirrus itself, as well as its roots in Schaefer and Langmuir’s previous work, sometimes made it difficult for the archivist to separate Project Cirrus documents from materials that related to cloud seeding efforts but were not strictly part of the work done under the government contract that defined Project Cirrus.
The archivist made every attempt to be strict with materials placed into the Project Cirrus series, using dates, acknowledgements to the military, and the Army Signal Corp’s own stamp to help identify documents as Project Cirrus when needed. Researchers may find it helpful to consult the cloud seeding materials in Series #1 for items documenting the events that led to the project’s founding.
Project Cirrus bloomed from multiple experiments that converged late in 1946. Vincent Schaefer and Irving Langmuir did extensive work for the United States military during World War II. Among their projects was the issue of precipitation static interfering with U.S. Airforce pilots' ability to fly and land safely. (See Series #1, General Electric) Their efforts to deal with the problem took them to the peak of New Hampshire's Mount Washington, where Schaefer and Langmuir observed behaviors of snow and ice crystals that were relevant to their current work but also gave them ideas for future research regarding supercooled water droplets.
When their contracts with the U.S. military ran out shortly after World War II, Schaefer and Langmuir continued studying behaviors of snow and ice particles in earnest. Schaefer discovered that he could use a type of special plastic called Formvar to capture and preserve snowflakes, some of which can be found in Series #1. These experiments led Schaefer to investigate further the behavior of particles in cloud formations. On a hot July day in 1946, while working with a cold chamber, Schaefer accidentally discovered that the use of dry ice in a supercooled cloud would form instant ice crystals. Drs. Irving Langmuir and Bernard Vonnegut added their expertise to the process, working with silver iodide as well as dry ice. In no time they worked out the potential effects of their discovery on weather modification, and the seeds of Project Cirrus were firmly planted.
Ultimately, on November 13, 1946, Schaefer led a successful cloud seeding expedition over Mount Greylock in Massachusetts. His efforts convinced the U.S. military to sign a contract with General Electric yet again early in 1947. This time, it was a mutual agreement between G.E., the Army Signal Corps of Engineers, the Air Force, and the Office of Naval Research. The government hoped that fruitful cloud seeding experimentation would open doors for agricultural success and even improved safety for the people of the United States. The project sponsored well over 150 flights as well as ground operations, with 1948-1950 being the major years for flights conducted. Besides basic cloud seeding work, they also experimented with hurricane seeding and wildfire fighting in the fall of 1947. The project wrapped up in September 1952 when the Airforce pilots began to be called away to Korea, and the G.E. team decided they had gone as far as they could with their work.
This series is divided into three parts: flight data and research, subject files, and reports and publications. Each one highlights various aspects of G.E.'s efforts to work with the military as they explored cloud seeding options in the late 1940s and early 1950s.
Subseries 1: Flight Data and Research, 1946-1953,, Undated
Arranged Alphabetically
This subseries contains materials on specific flights, though the availability of data ranges from a single page for some flights to multiple pages with photos for other flights. Each one is labeled by flight number, where it took place, what operation was performed, and on what date. There are also files on research efforts that took place on the ground and in the lab, including charts, diagrams, weather observations, and research notebooks. Photographs include particular flights, most of which feature aerial cloud views, but there are also general photos that were not labeled by Schaefer or his colleagues.
Researchers will also find documents on two extra Project Cirrus missions, one dealing with Hurricane King and the other with Operation Red. Both pursuits took place in the fall of 1947. The former related to cloud seeding a hurricane in order to expend its energy before it made landfall while Operation Red focused on cloud seeding over wildfires in New England. The Hurricane King effort is not to be confused with the Hurricane King of 1950; the Project Cirrus crew named the 1947 hurricane on their own but did not have a title from official weather bureaus.
Please note that Schaefer's preliminary materials on cloud seeding, as well as data and photos from his 1946 cloud seeding flights, are located in Series #1 because they took place before the official creation of Project Cirrus in 1947.
Box Folder
1 1 Adiabatic Diagrams, April 1950-December 1950
2 B-17G Airplane- Axis and Viewing Angles, September 30, 1947
3 Characteristics of a Good Crystalizer, Undated
4 Chart: Corrections for Photograph Horizon, Undated
5 Charts, Graphs, and Formulas, Undated
6 Climate Research, 1949-1952
Map-Tube
1 Cloud Observations and Data- "Constellation Flight", November 4, 1950
Box Folder
1 7-8 Cloud Seeding Notes and Data, 1947-1951
9 Cloud Seeding Notes and Data, 1949-1952
10 Diagrams: Seeding Tracks and Stratiform Clouds, Undated
11 Discharge Correlations of Gaging Stations, Undated
12 Experimental Meteorology Data, 1946-1949
13 Flight Notes, February 19, 1948, February 20, 1948
14 Flight Summary-Kiah Maynard to Schaefer, Undated
15 Flights I-58 Summary Chart, March 6, 1947-December 12, 1948
16 Flights I-175 Summaries, September 11, 1947-July 13, 1950
17 Flight #1 Photos, Schenectady, DI Seeding, September 11, 1947, Undated, Undated
18 Flight #9 Photos, Schenectady, No Identified Operation, January 22, 1948
19 Flight #21 Data, Schenectady, DI Pattern Seeding, April 28, 1948
20 Flight #21 Photos, Schenectady, DI Pattern Seeding, April 28, 1948
21 Flight #23 Data, Cape Cod, DI Seeding- MIT Project, April 29, 1948
Map-Tube
2 Flight #23 Data, Including Path of B-17, April 29, 1948
Box Folder
1 22-24 Flight #23 Photos and Negatives, April 29, 1948
25-26 Flight #24 Schenectady, Seeding, Photos, April 30, 1948
27 Flight #27 Photo, Schenectady, DI Pattern Seeding, May 18, 1948
28-29 Flight #27 Photos, May 18, 1948
31 Flight #29 Data, New Jersey Coast, DI Cumulus Seeding, June 3, 1948
32-37 Flight #29 Photos, June 3, 1948
Box Folder
2 1-4 Flight #29 Photos, June 3, 1948
5 Flight #33 Data, Lake George, DI Seeding, July 26, 1948
6 Flight #33 Photos, July 26, 1948
7 Flight #36 Photos, Schenectady Water Seeding, August 4, 1948
8 Flight #39 Photos, Schenectady, DI Seeding, August 10, 1948
9-12 Flight #45 Data, Albuquerque, SI and Di Seeding, October 14, 1948
Map-Tube
2 Flight #45 Data Charts, October 14, 1948
Box Folder
2 13-14 Flight #45 Photos, October 14, 1948
15 Flight #45 Photos, Undated
16 Flight #48 Data, Schenectady, DI Seeding Pattern, November 15, 1948
17 Flight #50 Data, East of Albany, DI Seeding Pattern, November 17, 1948
18 Flight #51 Data, Schenectady, DI Pattern Seeding, November 23, 1948
19 Flight #52 Data, Schenectady and Amsterdam, DI Pattern Seeding, November 24, 1948
20 Flight #53 Data, Schenectady and Rome, DI Pattern Seeding, November 24, 1948
21 Flight #53 Photos, November 24, 1948
22 Flight #53 Photos, November 24, 1948
23 Flight #54 Data Schenectady, DI Pattern Seeding, December 1, 1948
24 Flight #57 Data and Photos, East of Albany, SI and DI Seeding Pattern, December 21, 1948
25 Flight #58 Data, Albany Area, DI Seeding Pattern, December 22, 1948
26 Flight #59 Data, West of Coxsackie, DI Seeding Pattern, January 14, 1949
27 Flight #60 Data and Photos, Puerto Rico, Survey, February 4, 1949
28 Flight #60 Photo Slides, February 4, 1949
29 Flight #61 Data, Puerto Rico, and Water Seeding, February 5, 1949
30 Flight #62 Data, Puerto Rico, Water Seeding, February 5, 1949
31 Flight #62 and #63 Photos, February 5, 1949, February 6, 1949
32 Flight #64 Data, Puerto Rico, Data Seeding, February 8, 1949
33 Flight #64 Photo, February 8, 1949
34 Flight #65 Data, Puerto Rico, Survey, February 8, 1949
35 Flight #65 Photo, February 8, 1949
36 Flight #64 or #65 Photos, February 8, 1949
37 Flight #66 Data, Puerto Rico, Survey, February 10, 1949
38 Flight #67 and #68 Data, Puerto Rico, February 11, 1949
39 Flight #67 Photos, February 11, 1949
40 Flights #67-70 Photo Slides, February 11, 1949-February 12, 1949
Flat-File
1A Flights #67 and #68 Charts- Puerto Rico, February 11, 1949
Box Folder
2 41 Flights #69 and #70 Data, Puerto Rico, Survey, February 12, 1949
42 Flight #69 Photos, February 12, 1949
Map-Tube
3 Flight #70 Data, February 12, 1949
Box Folder
2 43 Flight #71 Data, South of Lake Ontario, SI and DI Seeding-Pattern, March 3, 1949
44 Flight #72 Data, Sprakers, Temperature Soundings, March 4, 1949
45 Flight #73 Data and Photos, Albany, SI Seeding-Pattern, March 10, 1949
Map-Tube
3 Flight #73 Data, March 10, 1949
Box Folder
2 46 Flight #73 Photos, March 10, 1949
47 Flight #74 Data, West of Syracuse, DI Seeding, March 15, 1949
48 Flight #78 Data, Albany Area, Testing Vortex Thermometer, March 25, 1949
49 Flight #79 Data, Schenectady, DI Pattern Seeding, March 30, 1949
50 Flight #79 Photos, March 30, 1949
Box Folder
3 1 Flight #80 Data, Albany Area, DI Pattern Seeding, March 31, 1949
2 Flight #82 Data, Schenectady, DI Seeding, April 8, 1949
3 Flight #83 Data, Schenectady, SI Pattern Seeding, April 18, 1949
4 Flight #83 Photos, April 18, 1949
5 Flight #85 Data and Photos, Schenectady, Instrument Testing, April 25, 1949
6 Flights #88 and #89, Schenectady and Ashokan Reservoir, DI Seeding and Instrument Testing, May 05, 1949
7 Flight #89 Photos, May 05, 1949
8 Flight #99 Data Ballston Spa, Salt Water Seeding, June 17, 1949
9 Flight #99 Photos, June 17, 1949
10 Flight #103 Albuquerque, DI Seeding, July 13, 1949
11 Flights #103-112, Data Progress Reports, September 1949-October 1949
12 Flight #104 Data and Photo, Albuquerque, DI and Liquid CO2 and Water Seeding, July 14, 1949
Oversized Folder
2 4 Flight #105 Data: Vertical Cross-Section Forecast, United Nations Air Forces, July 15, 1950 [sic]
Box Folder
3 13 Flight #106 Data, Albuquerque, DI Seeding, July 16, 1949
14-15 Flight #106 Photos, July 16, 1949
16 Flight #107 Data, Albuquerque DI and SI Seeding, July 18, 1949
Flat-File
1 Flight #107 Upper Section True Air Plot, July 18, 1949
Box Folder
3 17 Flight #108 Data, Albuquerque, DI Seeding, July 19, 1949
18 Flight #108 Photos and Negatives, July 19, 1949
19 Flight #109 Data, Albuquerque, SI Ground and DI Air Seeding, July 20, 1949
20 Flight #109 Photos, July 20, 1949
21 Flight #109 and #110 Photo Slides, July 20, 1949-July 21, 1949
22-23 Flight #110 Data, Albuquerque, SI Ground and DI Air Seeding, July 21, 1949
24 Flight #110 Photos and Slides, July 21, 1949
25 Flight #110 Photos, July 21, 1949
Flat-File
1 Flight #110 Upper Section True Air Plot, July 21, 1949
Box Folder
3 26 Flight #111 Data, Albuquerque, SI Ground and DI Air Seeding, July 22, 1949
27 Flight #112 Data, Albuquerque, SI Ground and DI Air Seeding, July 23, 1949
28 Flight #113 Photos, Schoharie Valley, Observing Ground Seeding, August 24, 1949
29 Flight #121 Photos, East of Schenectady, DI Seeding; Ground Operation #17, September 28, 1949
30 Flight #126 Data, Albany, Observation, October 24, 1949
31 Flight #126 Photos, October 24, 1949
32 Flight #128 Data, Schenectady, Observation -GO- 39, November 10, 1949
33 Flight #133 Data, Schenectady/Indianapolis, Instrument Test and Weather Observation, November 30, 1949
34 Flight #134 Data Indianapolis/Schenectady, Instrument Test -GO-47-48, December 1, 1949
35 Flight #136 Data and Photos, Schenectady, Snow Replicas and Vortex Thermometer -GO-55, December 15, 1949
36 Flight #137 Data, Cape Cod, DI Seeding with MIT, December 16, 1949
37 Flight #137 Photos, December 16, 1949
38 Flight #138 Data, Mount Washington, SI Detection -GO-63, January 4, 1950
39 Flight #138 Photos, January 4, 1960
40 Flight #139 Data, Schenectady/ Mount Washington, Instrument Check and DI Seeding, January 20, 1950
41 Flight #139 Photos, January 20, 1950
42 Flight #140 Data and Photos, Schenectady, Snow Replicas; GO-71, January 30, 1950
43 Flight #140 Photos, January 30, 1950
44 Flight #142 Data, Schenectady, DI Clear-Air Seeding, February 3, 1950
45 Flight # 142 Photos, February 3, 1950
46 Flight #143 Data, Schenectady, Snow Replicas/Vortex Thermometer, February 6, 1950
47 Flight #143 Photos, February 10, 1950
48 Flight #144 Data, Schenectady, Photos/ Snow Replicas, February 10, 1950
49 Flight #144 Photos, February 10, 1950
50 Flight #146 Data, Schenectady, DI Seeding/ Snow Replicas, February 28, 1950
51 Flight #148 Data, Schenectady, Attempted Vapor Trails, March 3, 1950
52 Flight #150 Data, Schenectady, Snow Replicas, 2 Small Photos, March 20, 1950
53 Flight #151 Data, Schenectady/ Dayton, Weather Reconnaissance, March 21, 1950
54 Flight #151 Photos, March 21, 1950
55 Flight #152 Data, Dayton/Schenectady, Weather Reconnaissance, March 22, 1950
56 Flight #153 Data, Schenectady, Snow Replicas, April 10, 1950
57 Flight #153 Photos, April 10, 1950
58 Flight #154 Data, Schenectady/ Amsterdam, Sow Replicas, April 12, 1950
59 Flight #154 Photos, April 12, 1950
60 Flight #155 Data, Schenectady, Observation, April 18, 1950
61 Flight #155 and #156 Photos, April 18, 1950, April 19, 1950
62 Flight #157 Data, Schenectady/ Boston/ Bangor, etc., SI Seeding, April 25, 1949-April 26, 1950
Map-Tube
4 Flight #157 Surface Charts, April 26, 1950
Box Folder
3 63 Flight #159 Data, Schenectady Area, DI Area, DI Clear-Air Seeding, May 23, 1950
64 Flight #159 Photos, May 23, 1950
65 Flight #160 Data, East Troy and Albany, DI Seeding, June 6, 1950
66 Flight #160 Photos, June 6, 1950
67 Flight #162 Data, Albuquerque, DI Cumulus Seeding, June 26, 1950
68 Flight #163/164 Data, Albuquerque, DI Cumulus Seeding, June 27, 1950
69 Flights #163-170 Summary- Draft Letter to Dr. Ference, July 7, 1950
70 Flight #165 Data, Albuquerque, DI Cumulus Seeding, June 28, 1950
71 Flight #166 Data, Albuquerque, DI Cumulus Seeding, June 29, 1950
Map-Tube
5 Flight #166 Data, June 29, 1950
Box Folder
3 72 Flight #167 Data, Albuquerque, DI Cumulus Seeding, June 30, 1950
73 Flight #168 Data, Albuquerque, DI Cumulus Seeding, July 1, 1950
Map-Tube
5 Flight #168 Data, July 1, 1950
Box Folder
3 74 Flight #168 Photo Slides, Albuquerque, DI Cumulus Seeding, July 1, 1950
75 Flight #168 Photos, July 1, 1950
76 Flight #169 Data, Albuquerque, Tracing Ground SI and DI Seeding, July 5, 1950
Map-Tube
5 Flight #169 Data, July 5, 1950
Box Folder
3 77 Flight #170 Data, Albuquerque, Tracing Ground SI and DI Seeding, July 1950
78 Flight #171 Data, Albuquerque, DI Seeding, July 7, 1950
79-80 Flight #172 Data, Albuquerque, SI and DI Seeding, July 8, 1950
81 Flight #172 Photos, July 8, 1950
82 Flight #172 Photos and Negatives, July 8, 1950
83 Flight #173 Data, Albuquerque/ Burbank, Gathering Weather Data, July 11, 1950
Box Folder
4 1 Flight #177 Data, Mount Washington, SI Seeding-Joint, February 15, 1951
2 Flight #178 Data, Schenectady, SI and DI Seeding, April 8, 1951-April 9, 1951
Oversized Folder
2 5 Flight Data Charts, September 11, 1947-July 13, 1950
Box Folder
4 3 Flight Procedures, Including Gamma and Figure 4 Patterns, January 11, 1949, Undated
4 Flights- Airspeed and Altimeter Corrections, Flight Calibration Data; Airplane 7746, September 26, 1948
5 Flights- Calculations by Langmuir, May 27, 1947
6 Flights- Catalogue of Data Collected by Operations Group, 1950
7 Flights- Data Charts, Non-Flight Specific, August 15, 1948
Flat-File
2 Flights: Hurricane Seeding, Test 1-1-1, Loran Special Air Navigation Chart, October 13, 1947
Box Folder
4 8 Flights- Local Flight #5667, April 19, 1950
9 Flights- Observational Flight #3, L-5, Schenectady, Balloon Soundings, December 14, 1948
10 Flights- Test Flight Photos, Schenectady, DE Seeding, March 7, 1947, Undated
11 Flights- Test Flight, Schenectady, DE Seeding, April 7, 1947
12 Flights- Test Flight, Schenectady, Observation, January 22, 1948
13 Flights- Test Flight, Schenectady, Stereoscopic Camera Test, November 30, 1948
14 Frost Studies- Notes and Correspondence, 1947-1948
15 General Research Notes: Charts, Graphs, Drawings and Observations, 1948, 1950, Undated
16 General Summary-Project Cirrus Flights, December 9, 1948
17 Grand Canyon Photo Negatives- Project with Langmuir, 1949
18 Ground Operation #2 Photos and Data, Schenectady County Airport, Cloud Photos, March 23, 1949
19 Ground Operation #4, Schenectady County Airport, Cloud Photos, June 6, 1949
20 Ground Operation #48 Photos and Data, Schenectady Airport, Time Lapse Movies, December 1, 1949
21 Ground Operation #68 Data, Schenectady Airport, Time Lapse Movies, January 16, 1950
22 Ground Operation #71 Photos, Schenectady Airport, Still Photos, Flight #140, 141, January 30, 1950
23 Hurricane King Crew and Aircraft Photos, 1947, Undated
24 Hurricane King Photo: Schaefer en Route to Seeding, October 1947
25 Hurricane King Seeding Data and Photos, October 13, 1947, Undated
26 Hurricane King Photo Slides, c.1947
27 Hurricane King Seeding, Test #1-1-1, October 13, 1947
28 Hurricane Research Charts and Graphs, 1946-1955
29 Ice Nuclei Concentrations at Mount Washington Observatory-Includes Photos, 1947-1952
30 Inadvertent Modification Proposal, Undated
31 Instrument Checklists, 1949-1950
32 Langmuir, Irving- Cloud Seeding Results, August 1950
33 Langmuir, Irving- Notebooks, July 6, 1949, July 15, 1949, July 18, 1949
34 Langmuir, Irving- Notebook for Project Cirrus, January 24, 1952-February 26, 1952
35 Log of Rainmaking Experiment, August 18, 1947-1947-08-18
36 Maps and Notes, Project Cirrus Research Area, 1948-1949
37 Mount Washington, Correspondence and Data, 1948-1949
38 Project Cirrus: National Weather Improvement Association, 1951
39 "NMIMT" Photo Negatives, Likely New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, July 1950
40-42 New Mexico School of Mines, 1949-1953
43-45 Nuclei and Precipitation Data, 1948-1950
46 Nuclei Data Sheets, 1949
47 Nuclei Data Sheets, 1950
48 Nuclei Data Sheets, 1951
49 Operation Institution #16, December 1949
50 Operation Red Data, October 29, 1947
Oversized
4 Operation Red Data (Part of Mini Notebook Set), 1940s
Flat-File
3 Operation Red Navigational Track, c.October 1947
Box Folder
4 51 Operation Red Photos, Plane #5560, October 29, 1947
52 Operation Red Photos, Plane 7746, October 29, 1947
Box Folder
5 1 Operation Red Photos, Plane 7746, October 29, 1947
2 Operations Summary and Justification of Project Cirrus, Incomplete, March 7, 1951
3 Ozone Research, 1950, Undated
4 OTK Sprinkler, Guymon, OK, 1952
5 Personal Rosters, Organizational Chart, 1949
6 Photo Negatives, Project Cirrus General, July 1949, Undated
7 Photo Negatives: Replicas from B-24, Undated
8 Photos: Aerial Views, Unidentified Flights and Cloud Formations, Undated
9 Photos: Cloud Seeding, Unidentified, Undated
10 Photos: Clouds and Cloud Seeding, Unidentified, Undated
11 Photos: Gamma Seeding Pattern, Includes Letter from Wilding Picture Productions, 1953, Undated
12 Photos: General- Aerial and Personnel, 1949, Undated
13 Photos: Mount Washington, Undated
14 Photos: Seeding Plane at Runway, Undated
15 Precipitation Data, 1948-1950
16 Precipitation Deposits, 1947
Oversized Folder
2 6 Precipitation Measurements- New Mexico, July 19, 1949
Box Folder
5 17 Precipitation Static: Cold Electrodes Used on Mount Washington, Photos, January 9, 1947
18 Precipitation Statistics, 1951
19 Priest River Experimental Forest Station, 1948
20 Principles to Guide Cloud Seeding Activities, Draft, Undated
21 Puerto Rico Cloud Seeding Operations- Cartoon of Plane and Crew by "B.B.", Undated
22 Racetrack Seeding Pattern, Photo, Undated
23 Rainfall Correlation Coefficients, 1950
24 Requirements for a Projectile Used in Cloud Seeding, January 20, 1948
Box Folder
6 1 Research Notebooks, Miniature, 1948-1949, 1952, Undated
2 Seeded Cloud Photos, Aerial Views, Undated
3 Seeded Cloud Photos: Gamma, Racetrack, and "L" Patterns, Undated
4 Seeding Data from Regions around United States, 1952
5 Silver and Lead Iodide, 1948, Undated
6 Silver Iodide Studies, Pacific Northwest, 1952
7 Small Notebook, Names, Plans, Observations, 1947
8 Snow Crystal Growth, 1949-1952
Artifact-Box
2 Snow Replica Slides, 1955-1957
Box Folder
6 9 Snowmaking Machine Blueprint, Undated
10 Snowstorm in Colorado, Data, January 22, 1948-January 27, 1948
11 Sublimation Nuclei, 1948-1949
12 Sublimation Nuclei Operations, Silver Iodide Testing at the New Mexico School of Mines, 1950
13 Sublimation Nuclei Operations, Silver Iodide Testing at the New Mexico School of Mines, 1950-1951
14 Sublimation Nuclei Studies, 1948-1949
15 Supercooled Clouds, Seeding with Dry Ice, 1947
16 Types of Frozen Precipitation, Chart, Undated
17 Unnumbered Flights, New York and Rhode Island, January 31, 1950
18 Untitled Discussion of Laboratory and Field Research, Ca. 1950
19 Weather Maps of the United States, 1948
20 Weather Maps of the United States, 1950
Map-Tube
1 Weather Plotting Charts, July 1950
Subseries 2: Subject Files, 1943-1953,, 1981,, Undated
Arranged alphabetically
The subject files feature documents and photographs directly related to Project Cirrus, but not to specific flights. Photos include equipment, precipitation, general cloud photos, and Schaefer appearing at functions during the Cirrus years. Researchers will also find some data on cloud seeding endeavors elsewhere, such as California and Sydney, Australia. Correspondence files do exist within this subseries, but researchers might also want to consult the correspondence files in Series #1 for the years 1947 to 1952 as it is likely that Schaefer kept Cirrus letters with his other General Electric correspondence. Other documents include news clippings, bulletins from meteorological conferences, and weather radar reports from MIT.
One highlight of the subject files is the material on Project Blowdown. Unlike Hurricane King and Operation Red, which were direct offshoots of Project Cirrus, Project Blowdown was a side project of Irving Langmuir’s in which he was advisor to Joe Silverthorne, a commercial seeder acting on behalf of the United Fruit Company. But their methods were those being used at the same time in the Project Cirrus operations. Project Blowdown dealt with intense storms that would destroy stands of fruit trees in Honduras.
Box Folder
7 1 Addresses Delivered by Dr. Vincent Schaefer, Dr. Harry Wexler, and Dr. Irving P. Krick Before The Great Plains Agricultural Council, August 3, 1951
2 Administrative Correspondence and Reports, 1946-1948
3 Administrative Correspondence and Reports, 1949-1952
4 American Meteorological Society: 91st National Meeting Program, 1946
5 Analysis, Methods of Telegram, 1951
6 "Artificial Stimulation of Precipitation" South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, 1948
Oversized
3 Atmospheric Photos from Rocket Flights- Johns Hopkins University, 1948
Box Folder
7 7 Berkshire Eagle Account of Project Cirrus with Letter from G. Chapman to B. Vonnegut, January 20, 1981-January 22, 1981
Oversized Folder
2 7 "Can We Help It Rain?" B. Renshaw of The Prairie Farmer, May 8, 1948
Box Folder
7 8 "Characteristics of a Good Crystalizer", Undated
9 Christmas Poem, Undated
10 Cloud Seeding Cartridges- Memorandum Report from Frankfort Arsenal's Pitman, Dunn Laboratory with Drawings, January 1950
11 "Cloud Seeding in the Sierra Near Bishop, California", 1952
12 Cloud Seeding Reports in California, March 1950
13 Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization Radio- Meteorological Program, 1950
14 Congressional Cloud Nucleation Committee Bill, Representative Thomas H. Werdel, 1951
15 Correspondence: Alexander, Jerome, 1949
16 Correspondence: Cloud Seeding / De-Icing, 1950-1953
17 Correspondence: Dry Ice Exposure Device, May 13, 1948
18 Correspondence: General, 1947-1949
19 Correspondence: General, 1950
20 Correspondence: General, 1951
21 Correspondence: General, 1952-1954, Undated
22 Correspondence: Hurricanes and Dry-Icing, September 11, 1951
23 Correspondence: Maynard Kiah- Note on Cloud and Airplane Difficulties, Undated
24 Correspondence: Rainmaking Logs- Illinois, 1947
25 Correspondence: Receipts for Photos and Data, 1949-1950
26 Correspondence: Smith, Robert B., 1951
27 Correspondence: Statistical Methods, I. Langmuir letter to W. Reichelderfer, 1950
28 Correspondence: with Additional Materials Regarding the Beginning of Project Cirrus, 1946
29 Department of the Army, Permission to Travel via Special Mission Aircraft, Rainmaking in the Caribbean, October 5, 1947
30 "Every Cloud has a Silver Lawsuit," N.R. Jaffray, Poem in Saturday Evening Post, Undated
31 Experimental Meteorology Text, Galleys, Ca.1950
32 Flood Control in the Midwest, 1951
33 French Language Articles, 1950
34 Government Regulation of Cloud Seeding, 1951
35 Grand River Valley Weather Improvement Association, Preliminary Report #3 on Cloud Seeding Activities, Lemmon, S.D., July 25, 1953
36 Hawaii, Geophysical Research, 1952
37 IGE News, January 30, 1951
38 Institute of Mathematical Statistics Meeting, 1952
39 Inventions by Schaefer, Drawings, Undated
40 Inventory of 35 mm. Photopanel Film in the Custody of the Operations Group, January 10, 1950
41 Item #5 of Minutes of Seventh Regular Meeting of Project Cirrus Technical Committee, January 16, 1948
42 Joint Meeting of Columbia River Basin Water Forecast Committee and Western Snow Conference, April 19, 1951-April 20, 1951
43 Joint Research/ Operations Group Meetings, 1948
44 Kansas-Missouri Flood: Letters to F.W. Reicheldefer and V.J. Schaefer from Senator Francis Case, August 3, 1951
45 Kansas- Missouri Flood: Statement Prepared for Senator James P. Kem by Schaefer, Undated
46 Langmuir, Irving, Time Article, August 28, 1950
47 Magazine Articles, 1943-1950
48 Maps, "The Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway System", 1948
49 Memo: Invitational Travel Orders, Puerto Rico, January 25, 1949
50 Memo: Time Irregularities Posted on Pictures from July 22, 1949, July 22, 1949, January 31, 1950
51 National Weather Improvement Association, News Releases, 1951
52 New Foundland, Artificially Induced precipitation, 1952
53 Weather Data for New Mexico, Fourth New Mexico Operation, June 1950-July 1950
54 Newspaper Clippings, 1946-1954, Undated
55 Newspaper Clippings, 1948-1951
56 Newspaper Clippings from Sweden, Undated
57 Nucleation Symposium, December 27, 1951-December 28, 1951
58 "The Occurrence of Ice-Crystal Nuclei in the Free Atmosphere" Galley, Undated
59 "Operation Snowflake" Engineering Report No. 1032, The Development of Snow Manufacturing Techniques by Use of Climactic Test Cold Rooms, January 31, 1949
60 Pathfinder Magazine and Letter, March 22, 1950
61 Photo: AAF, Wright Field- Ohio, Undated
62 Photo: Alto Cumulus Bellows, Undated
63 Photo: Cirrus Clouds, Undated
64 Photo: Cloud Seeding Effects, Undated
65 Photo: Clouds as Seen from Space, Undated
66 Photo: Cumulus Clouds, Undated
67 Photo: Hurricane King Reconnaissance- Weather Briefing, October 1947
68 Photo: Mixed Cloud Types, Undated
69 Photo: Mountain Summit, Unidentified, Undated
70 Photo: Racetrack Pattern, With Graph Showing Gamma and Racetrack Patterns, November 24, 1948, Undated
71 Photo: Schaefer and Langmuir with Unidentified Associates, Undated
72 Photo: Seeding Trail Produced by B-17 Airplane, Undated
73 Photo: Schaefer with Agricultural Scientists, ca. 1950
74 Photo Negatives: Cloud Beds, Undated
75 Photo Negatives: Cloud Seeding, July 1, 1950, Undated
76 Photo Negatives: Snow Crystal Replicas, Undated
77 Photos and Negatives: Cloud Seeding- Sydney, Australia, Undated
78 Photo Negatives: Clouds and Precipitation, 1948-1952
79 Photo Slides, Socorro, New Mexico, July 1949, Undated
80 Photos: California, Undated
81 Photos: Equipment, 1948, Undated
82 Photos: Precipitation, Undated
83 Photos: Puerto Rico, 1948, February 10, 1949
84 Photos: Unidentified Clouds and Snowflakes, Some Labeled with Army Signal Corps Stamp, 1949, Undated
85 Press Release: Cloud Seeding With Dry Ice and Silver Iodide, October 12, 1950
Box Folder
8 1 Press Release: Discontinuation of Cloud Physics Research at Clinton County Air Force Base, August 4, 1949
2 Press Release: Experimental Meteorology, August 1949
3 Press Release with Text, Photocopied, 1949, Undated
4 Presentation on Project Cirrus, Includes Illustrations of Uncertain Relationship to Text, ca. 1949
5 Press Releases from General Electric, 1949
6 Project Blowdown, November 1948-December 1948
7 Project Blowdown, March 1949
8 Project Blowdown, April 1949-May 1949
9 Project Blowdown, July 1949
10 Project Blowdown- Camayagua River Gauge Readings, 1949-1950
11 Project Blowdown- Correspondence, 1948-1949
12 Project Blowdown- Experimental Flights, August 1949
13 Project Blowdown- Experimental Flights, September 1949
14 Project Blowdown- Ground Observations, August 1949
15 Project Blowdown- Ground Observations, September 1949
16 Project Blowdown, Map of Lake Yojoa Area, January 5, 1949
17 Project Blowdown- Photo Slides of Honduras Experiment, April 18, 1949, Undated
18 Project Blowdown- Pseudo-Adiabatic Diagrams, May 1949
Box Folder
9 1 Project Blowdown- Pseudo- Adiabatic Diagrams, June 1949
2 Project Blowdown- Pseudo- Adiabatic Diagrams, August 1949
3 Radio Broadcast on Cloud Seeding, John Vandercook, 1947
4 Radiometer Data from Caltech, 1951
5 RDB Weathers Control Briefing- Persons Attending, 1951
6 Saskatchewan Farmers, Resolution, 1947
7 Science Service Press Release: Rainmaking Project Stops After Five Years", February 11, 1952
8 Signal Corps- ORC Training Bulletin, June 1950
9 Snow Research Press Conference: Letters and Photos, 1947
10 Speech Given to New York Railroad Club by Schaefer, Undated
11 Speech on Background of Project Cirrus, Audience Unknown, Undated
12 Statements to Press by Schaefer, 1948-1949
13 Swiss Meteorological Office, 1950
14 Technical Notes- Meteorological Conference at G.E. Company, December 12, 1946
15 Technical Steering Committee, 1947-1950
16 United Nations, Outline of Paper, Undated
Oversized Folder
4 4 United States Government Organizational Structure for Meteorology (Chart), April 1, 1949
Box Folder
9 17 University of Stockholm Institute of Meteorology- Schedule for Schaefer, 1952
18 Water Shortages in the West, 1949
19 Weather Bureau Precipitation Stations in New Mexico, Undated
20 Weather Corporation of America- Cloud Seeding Public Relations, February 1953
21 Weather Diagrams, 1951
22 Weather Radar Research Progress Report, MIT, No. 8, August 14, 1947-November 14, 1947
23 Weather Radar Research Progress Report, MIT, No. 17, November 15, 1947-February 14, 1950
24 Weather Radar Research Progress Report, MIT, No. 18, February 15, 1950-May 15, 1950
25 Weather Radar Research Progress Report, MIT, No. 19, May 15, 1950-August 14, 1950
26 Weather Radar Research Technical Report, MIT, No. 9 Part B, 1950
27 Weather Radar Research Final Report, MIT, February 28, 1951
28 Weather Station Map, United States, Undated
Oversized Folder
2 8 "Weather Under Control," Fortune by Time, Inc., February 1948
Subseries 3: Reports & Publications, 1946-1954, , Undated
Arranged chronologically
These are the articles and reports dealing specifically with Project Cirrus-related matters. Some are direct reports to the government regarding progress made while others were published in research journals for purposes of letting the outside world know what the Cirrus team was accomplishing. The subseries includes some drafts as well as the finished products. Researchers might find General Electric’s “Project Cirrus: The Story of Cloud Seeding” (Nov. 1952) and Barrington Havens’ “History of Project Cirrus” (1952) to be particularly useful summaries.
As noted in Series #1, Subseries #7, it was not always immediately clear to the archivist if a specific publication should be categorized as Project Cirrus or not. In those cases, the archivist looked for dates, credits or acknowledgements to the U.S. military, or footnotes regarding military contract numbers, to decide where the article or report should be filed. Schaefer spent 50% of his work hours on Project Cirrus so the fact that a document falls in the Cirrus date range does not automatically mean that it was a product of that pursuit.
Special note: Occasional Report #23 is dated before #22, and the same situation is true for Occasional Reports #8 and #9. The archivist has left them in numeric order despite the reversed dates.
Box Folder
10 1 "Development of Hypsometer Method of Atmospheric Pressure Measurement- First Monthly Progress Report" by GE for US Signal Corps, November 1946
2 "The Nucleation of Ice Formation by Silver Iodide" B. Vonnegut, March 1947
3 "Snow and Clouds in the Sky" V.J. Schaefer, Manuscript, April 9, 1947
4 "Basic Meteorological Factors Which Must Be Considered in the Production of Snow or Rain in the Natural Atmosphere by Artificial Seeding Methods" V.J. Schaefer, Manuscript, April 21, 1947
5 "Summary Results Thus Far Obtained in Artificial Nucleation of Clouds" I. Langmuir, April 23, 1947
6 Mount Washington Observatory Bulletin- "Environmental Studies of Snow and Supercooled Clouds on Mount Washington" V.J. Schaefer, June 1947
7 "First Quarterly Progress Report: Meteorological Research", July 15, 1947
8 "Properties of Particles of Snow and the Electrical Effects They Produce in Storms" V.J. Schaefer, August 1947
9 "Hurricane Seeding Test", September 1947
10 Hurricane Study Preliminary Report and Diagrams, October 15, 1947
11 "Heat Requirements for Instruments and Airfoils During Icing Storms on Mount Washington" V.J. Schaefer, November 1947
12 "Methods of Dissipating Supercooled Clouds in the Natural Atmosphere" V.J. Schaefer, September 1947-December 1947
13 The Natural and Artificial Formation of Snow in the Atmosphere, V.J. Schaefer, with Manuscript, 1947-1948
14 Quarterly Progress Reports 1-5, 1947-1948
15 "Experiments with Cloudy Skies," V.J. Schaefer, February 1948
16 "The Story of Man-made Weather," in American Fruit Grower V.J. Schaefer, March 1948
17 Occasional Report #1 "The Production of Rain by a Chain Reaction in Cumulus Clouds at Temperatures Above Freezing," Langmuir, April 15, 1948
18 Occasional Report #2 "A New Plane Model Cloud Meter," Falconer and Schaefer, May 15, 1948
19 Occasional Report #3 "Some Experiments on the Freezing of Water," Smith-Johannsen, June 1, 1948
20 Occasional Report #4 "Smoke from Smelting Operations as a Possible Source of Silver Iodide Nuclei," Falconer and Vonnegut, July 15, 1948
21 "The Story of Man-made Weather," V.J. Schaefer, Summer 1948
22 Occasional Report #5 "I Production of ice Crystals by the Adiabatic Expansion of Gas; Nucleation of Supercooled Clouds by Silver Iodide Smokes; III Influence of Butyl Alcohol on Shape of Snow Crystals Formed the Laboratory," B. Vonnegut, September 15, 1948
23 Occasional Report #6 "Variation of Temperature of Nucleation Rate of Supercooled Liquid Tin and Water Drops," B. Vonnegut, October 15, 1948
24 Occasional Report #7 "Observations on the Behavior of Water Drops at a Terminal Velocity in Air," Blanchard, November 1, 1948
25 "Larger Scale Seeding of Stratus and Cumulus Cloud with Dry Ice," I. Langmuir, December 15, 1948
26 "Methods and Techniques for the Study of Atmospheric Nuclei Clouds and Precipitation" -Abstract, December 15, 1948
27 "Methods and Techniques for the Study of Atmospheric Nuclei Clouds and Precipitation," V.J. Schaefer, Manuscript, December 15, 1948
28 Introduction and Occasional Reports 1-10, December 31, 1948
29 Final Report Part II, December 31, 1948
30 "First Trials of the Schaefer- Langmuir Dry-Ice Cloud Seeding Technique in Hawaii," L.B. Leopold and M.H. Halstead, December 1948
31 "The Detection of Ice Nuclei in the Free Atmosphere," V.J. Schaefer, 1948
32 Faith Quarterly Progress Report, Ca. 1948-1943
33 "The Growth of Particles in Smokes and Clouds and the Production of Snow from Supercooled Clouds," I. Langmuir, with Notes, 1948
34 "The Laboratory Cold Chamber for Simulation of Natural Clouds and the Reactions which Occur in Them," V.J. Schaefer, Manuscript, 1948
35 "The Production of Precipitation in the Atmosphere," V.J. Schaefer, Abstract for Symposium Talk, 1948
36 Proposed Work within Project Cirrus, 1948-1950
37 "A Hydrometeorological Analysis of Venezuelan Rainfall," R.D. Fletcher, January 1949
38 Occasional Report #8 "A Method for Obtaining a Continuous Record of the Types of Clouds in the Sky During the Day," Falconer, March 1, 1949
39 Occasional Report #9 "Detection of Ice Nuclei in the Free Atmosphere," Schaefer, February 1, 1949
40 Occasional Report #11 "Possibility of Modifying Lightning Storms in the Northern Rockies," Schaefer, February 1, 1949
41 Occasional Report #12 "Report on Cloud Studies in Puerto Rico," Schaefer, April 1, 1949
42 "The Formation of Ice Crystals in the Laboratory and the Atmosphere," V.J. Schaefer, April 1949
43 "Quarterly Progress Report Number 8", June 15, 1948
44 Occasional Report #13 "Silver Iodide Smoke," Vonnegut, July 1, 1949
45 "The Economic Aspects of Experimental Meteorology," Schaefer, July 6, 1949
46 "Experimental Meteorology," V.J. Schaefer, August 1949
47-49 "The Economic Aspects of Experimental Meteorology," V.J. Schaefer Manuscript, August 1949
50 "Economic Aspects of Experimental Meteorology" -Additional Materials, August 1949
51 Occasional Report #14 "Vortex Thermometer for Measuring True Air Temperature and True Air Speed in Flight," Schaefer, September 1, 1949
52 Occasional Report #15 "The Distribution of Rain Drops in Natural Rain," Blanchard, November 15, 1949
53 Occasional Report #16 "The Use of Sooted Screen for Determining Raindrop Size and Distribution," Blanchard, November 15, 1949
54 Occasional Report #17 "Experiments with Water Drops and the Interaction Between Them at Terminal Velocity in Air," Blanchard, December 15, 1949
55 Occasional Report #18 "Correlations Between Variations in the Atmospheric Potential Gradients at Schenectady and Certain Meteorological Phenomena," Falconer, December 15, 1949
56 "An Early Account of a Flight to Modify Lightning Storms," V.J. Schaefer, with Memo from H.T. Gisborne, 1949, Undated
57 "The Occurrence of Ice-Crystal Nuclei in the Free Atmosphere," V.J. Schaefer, Additional Materials, 1949
58 Quarterly Progress Reports 6-10, 1949
59 "Relation Between 7-Day Periodicity in Silver Iodide Seeding and 7-Day Periodicity in Rainfall and in Temperature," I. Langmuir, Ca. 1949
60 "Report on Cloud Control Experiments in Honduras," I. Langmuir, 1949
61 Occasional Report #19 "Continuous Recording Condensation Nuclei Meter," Vonnegut, January 1, 1950
62 Occasional Report #20 "Occurrence of Ice Crystal Nuclei in the Free Atmosphere," Schaefer, January 15, 1950
63 "A Confirmation of the Workman Reynolds Effect," V.J. Schaefer, January 1950
64 Supplement to Bimonthly Report, November and December 1949, Ca. 1950
65 "Progress in Cloud Modification in Project Cirrus Part I," V.J. Schaefer, February 14, 1950
66 "Snow and its Relationship to Experimental Meteorology," V.J. Schaefer, Manuscript, March 1950
67 "Snow and its Relationship to Experimental Meteorology," V.J. Schaefer, Manuscripts, Spring 1950
68 "The Occurrence of Ice-Crystal Nuclei in the Free Atmosphere," V.J. Schaefer, March 1950
69 "The Occurrence of Ice-Crystal Nuclei in the Free Atmosphere," V.J. Schaefer, March 1950
70 Report to the Technical Steering Committee on Meteorology Meetings in England and Switzerland, March 28, 1950-April 17, 1950
71 Occasional Report #21 "Progress in Cloud Modification by Project Cirrus," Langmuir, April 15, 1950
72 "Experiments With Silver Iodide Smokes in the Natural Atmosphere," B. Vonnegut, May 1950
73 "Induced Precipitation and Experimental Meteorology", May 1950-June 1950
74 Occasional Report #22 "Cause and Effect Versus Probability in Shower Production," Langmuir, July 15, 1950
75 Occasional Report #23 "A Common Pattern Seeding of Stratus Clouds, Flight 52 and a Racetrack Pattern Seeding of Clouds, Flight 53," Woodman and Langmuir, June 1, 1951
76 Occasional Report #24 "Results of Seeding of Cumulus Clouds in New Mexico -A Partial Report on Flight 45," Langmuir, June 1, 1950
Box Folder
11 1 "The Effects Produced by Seeding Supercooled Clouds with Dry Ice and Silver Iodine," V.J. Schaefer, June 1950
2 Occasional Report #25 "Studies of Tropical Clouds," Langmuir, July 1, 1950
3 "Localized Effects Induced by Seeding Supercooled Clouds with Dry Ice and Silver Iodide," V.J. Schaefer, Press Release and Manuscripts, October 12, 1950, Undated
4 "Localized Effects Induced by Seeding Supercooled Clouds with Dry Ice and Silver Iodide," V.J. Schaefer, Abstracts and Manuscripts, October 1950
5 "Snow and Experimental Meteorology," V.J. Schaefer, December 1950
6 "The Control of Precipitation by Seeding Techniques," I. Langmuir, Manuscript, 1950
7 "The Effects Produced by Seeding Supercooled Clouds with Dry Ice and Silver Iodine," in the Centenary Proceedings of the Royal Meteorologist Society, V.J. Schaefer, 1950
8 "Experimental Meteorology," V.J. Schaefer, 1950
9 Meteorology Meetings in England and Switzerland, 1950
10 Quarterly Progress Reports 11-15, 1950-1951
11 Occasional Report #27 "Seven Day Periodicity in Upper Air Temperatures Induced by Localized Silver Iodide Seeding," Hubert and Wells, January 15, 1951
12 "1948-1949 Trials of the Schaefer- Langmuir Cloud-Seeding Technique in Hawaii," L.B. Leopold and W.A. Mordy, February 1951
13 "Effect of Sunlight on the Action of Silver Iodine Particles as Sublimation Nuclei," Bernard Vonnegut and Vincent Schaefer, February 1951
14 "Snow and its Relationship to Experimental Meteorology," V.J. Schaefer, April 1951
15 "Weather Modifications: Extracts from Hearings on Weather Legislation- Statements of Dr. C.G. Suits, Dr. V.J. Schaefer, and Dr. B. Vonnegut", April 7, 1951
16 Occasional Report #26 "Periodic Fluctuations in the Ohio Basin Moisture Balance," Hubert and Wells, June 15, 1951
17 Occasional Report #28 "Concentration of Ice Crystal Nuclei under Various Weather Conditions," Hubert and Wells, June 15, 1951
18 Final Report, Introduction and Occasional Reports 11-29, July 30, 1951
19 Occasional Report #29 "Detection and Measurement of Aerosol Particles by the Use of an Electrically Heated Filament," Vonnegut and Neubauer, September 1, 1951
20 Occasional Report #30 "A Vortex Whistle," Vonnegut, November 1, 1951
21 "Publications by Vincent J. Schaefer," 1936-1951, Ca. 1951
22 "The Scientific Aspects of Rainmaking," Abstract only and Related Paperwork, V.J. Schaefer, 1951
23 Weather Control and Augmented Potable Water Supply: Extracts from Hearings, 1951
24 Quarterly Reports 16-19, 1951-1952
25 Occasional Report #31 "Spray Nozzle Type of Silver Iodide Smoke Generator for Airplane Use," Vonnegut and Maynard, February 15, 1952
26 Occasional Report #32 "A Continuous Cloud Chamber for Studying Small Particles in the Atmosphere," Schaefer, March 1, 1952
27 Occasional Report #33 "The Formation of Ice Crystals in Ordinary and Nuclei-Free Air," Schaefer, March 1, 1952
28 Occasional Report #32 "Thin Films of Supersaturated Solution for Detecting, Counting, and Intensifying Very Small Crystalline Particles," Vonnegut, April 15, 1952
29 Continuous Cloud Chamber for Studying Small Particles in the Atmosphere," V.J. Schaefer, June 1952
30 "Formation of Ice-Crystals in Ordinary Nuclei-Free Air," V.J. Schaefer, June 1952
31 "History of Project Cirrus," Havens, July 1952
32 Occasional Report #35, "The Concentration of Ice Nuclei at the Summit of Mount Washington," Schaefer, August 1, 1952
33 Occasional Report #36 and #37, "Production of Monodisperse Liquid Particles by Electric Atomization," Vonnegut and Neubauer, "Multiple-stage Dilution of Aerosols by Use of Aspirators," Vonnegut, Gelles and Maynard, October 1, 1952
34 Occasional Report #38 and #39, "Counting Sodium- Containing Particles in the Atmosphere by their Spectral Emission in a Hydrogen Flame," Vonnegut and Neubauer and "Effect of Halogens on the Production of Condensation Nuclei by a Heated Platinum Wire," Von, October 1, 1952
35 "Project Cirrus: The Story of Cloud Seeding," General Electric, November 1952
36 "Rain and Rain Making," V.J. Schaefer, December 1952
37 "Problem of Documentary Evidence of the Effectiveness of Cloud Seeding," T.A. Jeeves, L.M. LeCam, J. Neyman and E.L. Scott, Ca. 1952
38 Final Report, Part I, Marked Draft, March 1953
39-40 Final Report Part I. Laboratory, Field, and Flight Experiments by Vincent Schaefer, March 1953
41 Occasional Report #40, "Variations in the Concentrations of Condensation Nuclei in the Atmosphere," Falconer, Maynard and Vonnegut, April 15, 1953
42 "The Nucleation and Growth of Ice Crystals," V.J. Schaefer, with Notes, April 1953
43 Final Report, Thank You Letters, April 1953-December 1953
44 "The Mount Washington Observatory for Field Research," V.J. Schaefer Manuscript, May 18, 1952
45 Final Report: Part II. Analysis of the Effects of Periodic Seeding of the Atmosphere with Silver Iodide, May 1953
46 "The Mount Washington Observatory for Field Research," V.J. Schaefer, June 1953
47 "The Formation of Smoke Aerosols," V.J. Schaefer, Manuscript, July 30, 1953
48 "Text Proposed For Guest Column of Mr. Robert S. Allen, Post-Hall Newspaper Syndicate," by VJS, Manuscript, August 7, 1953
49 "Text Proposed For Guest Column of Mr. Robert S. Allen, Post-Hall Newspaper Syndicate," by V.J. Schaefer, October 7, 1953
50 "Silver and Lead Iodides as Ice Crystal Nuclei," V.J. Schaefer, October 6, 1953
51 "The Measurement of High Concentrations of Ice Nuclei in a Small Parcel of Air", October 15, 1953
52 "The Concentration of Ice Nuclei in Air Passing the Summit of Mount Washington," V.J. Schaefer, November 11, 1953
53 "Cloud Forms of Jet Streams," V.J. Schaefer, December 1953
54 Final Report, ONR Project, Contract No. NONR-925(00), December 1953
55 Office of Naval Research Project Final Report, December 1953
56 "Office of Naval Research (ONR) Project Contract #NONR-925(00) Final Report" [Atmospheric Physics], December 1953
57 Office of Naval Research Project Final Report- Manuscripts, 1953
58 "Report on Evaluation of Past and Future Experiments on Widespread Control of Weather," (I. Langmuir), Ca. 1953
59 Final Report Mailing List, 1953
60 "Ice Crystals Formed Spontaneously by the Rapid Expansion of Moist Air," V.J. Schaefer, April 1954
61 "The Measurement of High Concentrations of Ice Nuclei in a Small Parcel of Air," with Undated Notes, V.J. Schaefer, May 1954, Undated
62 "The Concentration of Ice Nuclei in Air Passing the Summit of Mount Washington," with Manuscripts and Graphics, V.J. Schaefer, September 1954, Undated
63 "Silver and Lead Iodides as Ice Crystal Nuclei," V.J. Schaefer, With Photos and Charts, October 1954, June 1954-August 1954, Undated
Box Folder
12 1 Final Report, Ch.2 "The Laboratory Phase of Project Cirrus," Manuscript, Undated
2 Final Report, Ch. 3, "The Field Observation Phase of Project Cirrus", Manuscript, Undated
3 Final Report, Ch. 4, "Flight Experiments Under Project Cirrus," Manuscript, Undated
4 Final Report, Ch. 5, "Conclusions," Manuscript, Undated
5 Final Report Ch. 12, Periodic Seeding and Silver Iodide, Revision of May 15, 1953, Undated
6 Final Report- Draft/Manuscript, Undated
7 "Increasing Rainfall and Snowpack through Cloud Seeding," North American Weather Consultants, Undated
8 "Plans for the Puerto Rico Trip," Discusses Flight 45; Partial Copy, Author Unknown, Undated
9 "The Production of Snow and Rain in Cloudy Skies," V.J. Schaefer, Manuscript, Undated
10 "The Production of Snow and Rain in Cloudy Skies," V.J. Schaefer, Manuscript, Undated
11 "Properties of Particles of Snow and the Electrical Effects They Produce in Storms" V.J. Schaefer, Manuscript, Undated
12 "Tethering the Weather," V.J. Schaefer, Manuscript, Undated
13 "Summary of Work in 1948 by Physical Studies Group," V.J. Schaefer, Manuscript, Undated
14 "The Use of Seeding Techniques for Studying The Atmosphere," Fragment of larger Document, Undated
15 "The Use of Silver Iodide for Seeding Supercooled Clouds," V.J. Schaefer, Manuscript, Undated
16 "Weather Reconnaissance by Airborne Time Lapse Camera," Schaefer with W.M. Taylor, Manuscript, Undated
Series 3: Munitalp Foundation, 1940-1968, , Undated 11.5 cubic ft.
Arranged alphabetically, with the exception of the reports and publications which are chronological.
Vincent Schaefer's first contact with the Munitalp Foundation came in the early 1950s around the time that Project Cirrus was winding down. The day-to-day routine in the research lab at General Electric was changing from the way it was in the days of Willis Whitney, so in 1951 Schaefer began scaling back his hours at G.E. to collaborate with Munitalp's board of trustees. By 1954, Schaefer was ready to make a complete break from G.E. to become Munitalp's director of research.
Munitalp's main focus was meteorological research, specifically cloud physics. Three advisors helped formulate the group's goals in the early fifties: Svere Petterssen, Horace Byers, and Vincent Schaefer, all of whom came from respected scientific backgrounds. As director of research, Schaefer brought some unexplored ideas from Project Cirrus to the table, ideas that were given time and attention under the resources provided by Munitalp. In collaboration with Director Vernon Crudge, Schaefer oversaw research efforts that expanded throughout the United States and beyond. Munitalp not only sponsored its own original experiments, but also guided grant-funded projects by other organizations having an interest in meteorological work. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, the University of Hokkaido (Japan), the University of Stockholm, and Mount Washington Observatory are just a few of the many institutions that collaborated with Munitalp
Two of the best-known research projects to come from Munitalp are Project Skyfire, which dealt with lightning-induced forest fires in the American Northwest, and the first use of time-lapse films to track cloud formations. The former attempted to use cloud seeding technology to reduce risks of forest fires while the latter provided a whole new understanding of everything from jet stream cloud behavior to development of low-lying fog-- information used by the American Meteorological Society as well as flight crews of the world's major airlines.
The Munitalp Foundation moved its headquarters to Africa in the late 1950s, and while Schaefer traveled there to oversee the transfer, he decided not to remain as director of research. Though he officially left the Foundation in 1958, he maintained an advisory role for several years thereafter.
Subseries 1: General Research, 1948-1964,, Undated
Arranged alphabetically
General research essentially covers all documents not dealing with Project Skyfire. Since Munitalp’s purpose was to aid other organizations with their meteorological experiments, it had many different projects under its wing. Schaefer’s papers in this area deal mainly with jet stream and cloud studies and weather modification. One specific example of a new weather modification experiment was Project Shower, which took Schaefer to Hawaii to work with the Pineapple Institute. Some of the files are reminiscent of his work at General Electric since his fascination with particle studies continued well beyond his days in the Knolls Research Laboratory. There are documents and photographs dealing with clouds, precipitation, and atmospheric particles, including some from Mount Washington since Schaefer continued to foster a working relationship with the lab there. Time lapse films of clouds and cloud formations were also a ground-breaking aspect of Schaefer’s work with Munitalp.
There are also some files on the mobile lab that Schaefer engineered, an idea that followed him after Munitalp when he went to other institutions. Researchers will find somewhat less extensive field notes in this subseries than in General Electric, which may be a reflection of Schaefer’s increased administrative role with Munitalp.
Box Folder
1 1 200-300 Millibar Analyses, 1953, 1957
Map-Tube
6 300 Millibar Analysis Maps (Central Analysis Office- Montreal Airport), November 21-24, 1957
Box Folder
1 2 Aerial Photo, Unidentified, Undated
3 Africa- Plans for Research Program, 1956-1958
4 Africa- Notecards, Undated
5-6 Africa, Photo Slides, 1957
7 Africa- Time Lapse Films, 1954-1959
8 Air Weather Service, 1953-1955
9 Atmospheric Electrical Measurements in the Hawaiian Islands, 1954-1955
Oversized Folder
4 5 Atmospheric Pressure Map, May 1, 1952
Box Folder
1 10 Behenate- Photo, April 30, 1960
11 Bergen, Photos and Slides, 1954-1964
12 Canyon Creek Area- Various Charts/Measurements, Undated
13 Cloud Form Manual, Weather Bureau, 1949
14 Cloud Patterns in a Hurricane from 30,000 Feet- Photo, Undated
15 Cloud Physics, Research Planning Conference, 1958
16 Cloud Photo Slides: Puerto Rico, Hawaii, London, 1949-1959
17 Cloud Photos, 1954, 1958
18 Cloud, Unseeded, Cumulus- Photo, 1958
19 Cloud Formations, Photos, 1950, 1956, Undated
20 Cloud Seeding, Newspaper Clippings, 1955
21 Cloud Seeding Dash 80, 707, 1st Trip, Photo Negatives, 1955
22 Cloud Seeding, Photo Negatives, 1952-1953, 1958-1961, Undated
23 Cloud Seeding Photos, August 22, 1957
24 Cloud Seeding Photos, 1952-1955, 1958, Undated
25 Cloud Seeding SFC Peaks, Maroon Bells, Photo Negatives, Undated
26 Clouding Seeding, West Fork Butte, Photo Negatives, 1957
27 Cloud Studies, 1953, Undated
28 Cloud Study, 1955-1958
29 Clouds, Photo Negatives, 1953-1959
30 Comet Reports, 1954
31 Clouds and Cloud Formations, Photo Negatives, 1956, Undated
32 Clouds and Cloud Formations, Photo Negatives to Collier's, November 1956-December 1956
33 Clouds and Cloud Formations Photos, Undated
34 Clouds in the Jet Stream, Photo Negatives, 1958
35 Clouds in the Jet Stream, Photos, 1952-1953, Undated
36 Clouds, Woestyne, Photo Negatives, 1959
37 Comet Arend-Roland, Photo, 1957
38 Contrails, Photo Slides, 1948-1959
39 Corona Photos, Undated
40 Crystal Studies, Photos, 1959-1960, Undated
41 Crystals, New Mexico, Photo Negatives, May 2, 1955
42 Drops on Trees, Photo Negatives, Undated
43 Edge of a Cirrus Cloud, Canopy Followed For More Than A Thousand Miles, Photograph, Undated
44 England, Photo Slides, 1950
45 Eroded Rock in The Grand Canyon, Photo, Undated, Undated
46 Erosion Lines with Falling Level of River, Photos, Undated
47 Equipment-Bell + Howell Company, Film Splice Instructions, Undated
48 Equipment-Bell + Howell Price List Booklet, January 1, 1954
49 Equipment- Linhoff, Technika Camera Instructions and Certificate of Ownership Booklet, Undated
50 Equipment- Photovision, Time Lapse Mechanism Brochure, Undated
51 Equipment- Radio Corporation of America (RCA), Microameter Instructions, Warranty Certificates and Packing Lists, 1949, Undated
52 Equipment- Royco, Inc., Particle Counter Instructions, Undated
53 Experimental 30 Day Weather Forecasts, 1954
Oversized
5 Experimental Roll Charts- Cloud Meter Data, 1945, 1954-1955
Box Folder
1 54 Falconer, Raymond, Long-Range Forecasting, 1954-1960
55 Film Project, Photos, August 1958-January 1961
56 Film Record Notebook, #201-342, 1953
57 Film: MARP, 1954-1959
58 Films: Miscellaneous, 1953-1958
59 Films: Time Lapse, 1954-1959
60 Films: Time Lapse- General A-N, 1956-1959
61 Films: Time Lapse-General O-Z, 1955-1958
62 Films: Time Lapse- General (Misc.), 1954, Undated
63-64 Films: Time Lapse- Geographical, 1953-1959
65 Films: Time Lapse- "Project Time Lapse,", 1953-1958
66 First Adirondack Conference on Cloud Nuclei, Photo Negatives, 1957
67 Flow Charts for Projects, 1955
68 General Notes: Jet Stream Clouds, Photomicrograph, Adventures Ahead, Particle Studies, Undated
69 Generator, Salt Particle, Photo Negatives, 1953
70 Germany- Data and Correspondence, 1954-1955
71 Germany, Photo Slides, 1954
72 Gisborne Mountain- Notebook of Trial Run Up the Mountain, August 23, 1955-August 25, 1955
73 Gisborne Mountain, Photos of Measurements, 1955
74 Gisborne Mountain Photo Negatives, August 9, 1952
Oversized Folder
4 6 Gisborne Mountain Weather Data Charts, August 23-24, 1955
Box Folder
1 75 Gore Mountain Survey, Photo Negatives, 1957
76 Grand Canyon, Photo Negatives, 1956
77 Hailstone Photos, Undated
78 Hailstone Photos, Undated
79 Hailstones, Grand Island Nebraska, Photograph, 1959
80 Hailstones and Hail Damage, Photos, 1957, Undated
81 Hail, Photo Negatives, 1958
82 Hail, Negatives, Undated
Flat-File
4 Hawaii: Raindrop Diameter Graphs, October 26, 1954, November 2, 1954, December 1-3, 1954
Box Folder
1 83 High Altitude Observatory, Photo Negatives, Undated
Box Folder
2 1-3 High Altitude Observatory, 1953-1958
4 Ice Nuclei Measuring Instruments, 1957, 1959
5 Industrial Bulletin of Arthur D. Little Inc., December 1953
6 Ice Nuclei, Photo Negatives, Undated
7 Icicles, Helderbergs, Photo Negatives, Undated
8 Idaho- Priest River Experiment Station, Photo Negatives, 1948, 1952-1955
Oversized Folder
2 9 Island of Hawaii: Map- Rain Gages Operating 1948, c.1948
Box Folder
2 9 Japan- Data Charts, January 18, 1954-March 18, 1954
10 Japanese-American LES, Photo Negatives, Undated
Map-Tube
7 Jet Stream Analysis Charts, February 15-26, 1958
Box Folder
2 11 Jet Stream and Precipitation Measurements, June 15, 1954, July 7, 1954, Undated
Oversized Folder
4 6 Jet Stream Cloud Photo- Kansas City, April 3, 1956
Box Folder
2 12 Jet Stream Clouds Notebook Pages, August 15, 1951, August 15, 1952
13 Jet Stream Clouds, Photo Negatives, 1952-1955, 1957
14 Jet Stream Clouds, Photo Negatives, 1952-1958
15 Jet Stream Clouds, Woestyne South, Photo Negatives, April 1957
16 Jet Stream: Fiction, Occurrence in, Ca.1955
Flat-File
5 Jet Stream: Flights #32 and #33, January 23, 1955, January 25, 1955
Oversized Folder
2 10 Jet Stream: Maps- 200 and 300 Millibar Analysis, November 18-25, 1957
Box Folder
2 17 Jet Stream Records at 300mb, June 1952-September 1952
18 Jet Stream: Research, 1955-1957
19 Jet Streams Talk (Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences), 1955
20-26 Jet Stream Project, 1955
27 Leiterdes Meteoroloischen Observatoriums, Photos, 1954
28 Lenticular Lee Wave Cloud Over New Zealand- Notes, Ca. 1952
29 Light Scatter Multilayers, Photo Negatives, Undated
30 Livestock Weather Safety Index, Undated
Oversized Folder
2 11 Location Record: MARP Time Lapse Cameras, 1952-1953
Flat-File
6 Lolo National Forest- Map of West Half, 1950
Oversized Folder
4 7 Lolo National Forest- Map With Notations, 1949, Undated
Box Folder
2 31 Manned Hot Air Balloons, Raven, Photos, 1950-1963
Oversized Folder
6 1 MARP Field Notes, 1954-1955
Box Folder
2 32 MARP Weather Observations File Folder-Correspondence, Bulletins and Memos, 1952-1953, Undated
33 Mauna Loa Expedition, 1956-1957
34 Meteorology Research, Inc. -An Integrated Program for Cloud Physics Studies, January 28, 1958
35 Mission Mountain Montana, Photograph, 1949
36 Mobile Weather Observatory, 1954-1961, Undated
37 Mobile Weather Unit -Photos, Undated
38-40 Mount Washington Observatory Icing Experiments, Photos, Undated
41 Mount Washington Observatory: Nuclei Data Sheets, 1955
42 Mount Washington Observatory: Nuclei Data Sheets, 1956
43 Mount Washington Observatory: Nuclei Data Sheets (Incomplete), 1957
44 Mount Washington Observatory: Nuclei Data Sheets, 1958
45 Mount Washington Observatory: Nuclei Data Sheets, December 29, 1958-December 29, 1959
46 Mount Washington Observatory: Nuclei Data Sheets, December 1959-January 1961
47 "The Munitalp Atmospheric Research Project," V.J. Schaefer (With Photographs), May 25, 1953, Undated
48 Munitalp Atmospheric Research Project (MARP)- Field Notes, 1952-1957
49 Munitalp Atmospheric Research Project (MARP)- Field Notes, 1955-1957
50 Munitalp Atmospheric Research Project (MARP)- Italy Field Notes, Undated
51 Munitalp Atmospheric Research Project (MARP)- Lima Camera Test, Field Notes, February 25, 1953
52 Munitalp Atmospheric Research Project (MARP)-Movie Notebook, 1952-1953
53 Munitalp Atmospheric Research Project (MARP)- Notebook pages, Books #1-7, 1952-1953
54 Munitalp Atmospheric Research Project (MARP)-Notecards, 1952-1957
55 Munitalp Atmospheric Research Project (MARP)- Personnel and Field Notes, 1952-1953
56 Munitalp Films-Packing List for Shipping to Nairobi Headquarters, Undated
57 "The Munitalp Time Lapse Cloud Movie Project," Synopsis with Index, Undated
Oversized Folder
4 8 Newfoundland: General Plan of Drainage Areas (Map), February 13, 1952
Box Folder
3 1 Notebook, Miniature (Disbound), 1952
2 Notebook, Miniature- "VJS L.T. Record", Ca. 1952
3 Notebook, Various Topics, 1958, Undated
4 Notebooks, Miniature, 1955
5 Notebooks, Miniature, 1956, 1957
6 Notebooks, Miniature, 1959, Ca. 1960, Undated
7 Northwest Photo Slides, 1957
8 Norway Photo Slides, 1958
9 Notebooks, 1954-1959
10 NSI/Whiteface Mountain, Photo Negatives, 1959
11 Office of Naval Research, New York- Chart of Classification Categories and Contact Information, Undated
Oversized Folder
4 9 Precipitation Chart- Sky Brightness, Corona Current, and Wind Shifts, November 7, 1954
Box Folder
3 12 Private Counter (Royco Instruments Model PC-200 A), 1961
13 Photography Notes-Flight Photos, November 19, 1953
14 Poly Ethylene Bags, Photo, Ca. 1953
15 Precipitation Particles, Undated
16 Project Black Sheep, 1952-1953
17 Project List, 1952-1956
Oversized Folder
4 10 Project Outlines and Successes, 1952-1958
Box Folder
4 1 Project Shower- Geographical and Climatological Notes, July 28, 1954
2 Project Shower- Hawaii and Pineapple Institute, 1954-1955, Undated
3 Project Shower- Hawaii and Pineapple Institute, Undated
4 Project Shower- Hawaii, Photo Slides, 1954
5 Proposals, 1954
Oversized Folder
4 11 Puu Huluhulu Data Chart, October 30, 1954
12 Radio Weather Map- Intercoastal, Undated
Box Folder
4 6 Record of Boeing 707 Flight, Seattle to Washington D.C., October 16, 1955
7 Research Notebook #100, With Complete Pages from Notebook #3, 1953-1956, 1978
8 Schaefer Meeting with Dr. Fujita, University of Chicago, Meso-Analysis Work, May 1957
9 Smog Research, 1954-1956
10 Snow, Photo Negatives, 1953, 1956, Undated
11 Snow Crystals, Photo Negatives, Undated
12 Southwest, USA, Photo Slides, 1950-1952
13 Sphere Camera, Photo Negatives, 1952-1954
Box Folder
5 1 Staffing Notes, Manuscripts of Articles, and Research Data, August 1958-October 1959, Undated
2 Storm Track Chart and Surface Chart, June 27, 1959, Undated
3 Sweden, Photo Slides, 1958
4 Switzerland, Photos and Slides, 1954-1963
5 Switzerland, Photo Slides, 1950-1954
6 Time Lapse Cameras and Physical Research- Field Notes, 1955, Undated
Oversized
12 Time Lapse Data- Boxed Separately, 1950s
Box Folder
5 7 Time Lapse Data Notebook, 1954-1955
8 Time Lapse Data Notebook, Hong Kong, Ca. 1956
9 Time Lapse Notebook, 1954
10 Time Lapse Photos, 1954
11 Time Lapse Equipment Photos, Ca. 1950
12 Time Lapse Research, 1954-1958
13 Transvection, Photos, 1953
Oversized Folder
4 13 U.S. Forest Service Photos- Schaefer and Colleagues,
Box Folder
5 14 Wave Clouds- Schenectady Blizzard, 1950
15 Weather Balloon, Photo, 1959
Box Folder
6 1 Weather Control: Cloud Seeding Studies, 1953-1962
2 Weather Films (Notes on Cards), 1955
3 Weather Phenomena Pictures- Data Summary for Time Lapse Camera (16 mm Magazines), 1957
4 Weather Plotting Charts, 1956
5 Wind Charts of US, ca. 1955
6 Wind Translator- Photos, Undated
7 Your Air Maps of United Airlines with Handwritten Notes on Covers and Within, ca. 1954
Subseries 2: Project Skyfire, 1940-1962,, Undated
Arranged alphabetically
Just as Schaefer’s best-known work at General Electric was Project Cirrus, one of his most important jobs with Munitalp was Project Skyfire. Schaefer became familiar with the problem of lightning-induced forest fires while he was still working at G.E., but it wasn’t until he transferred to Munitalp that he could give the issue direct attention. Working alongside Harry Gisborne, chief of fire research in Missoula, Montana, Schaefer researched the use of cloud seeding techniques in changing patterns of lightning storms in the northwestern United States. This subseries contains the data, charts, maps, and photographs from this project.
Box Folder
7 1 American Meteorological Society, 143rd Meeting, January 24, 1956
2 Analysis Map, Undated
Oversized Folder
4 14 Analysis Map, 1954
Oversized Folder
2 13 Analysis Maps, August 8-31, 1955, Undated
Box Folder
7 3 Brochure by US Department of Agriculture, 1957
4 Central Cloud Seeded with Silver Iodide, Photo, 1958
5 Clippings about Fire, 1954, 1957-1960
6 Cloud Seeding in Montana, Photo, Undated
7 Cloud Seeding, Photo Slides, 1957
8 Committee on Fire Research, 1958
9 Correspondence and Miscellaneous, October 1952, August 1955
10-11 Correspondence and Miscellaneous, July 1957-September 1960
12 Correspondence with I. Langmuir, 1956
13 Data Charts: Cumulus Cloud and Lightning Strikes/ Jet Stream Clouds, Undated
14 Data, Maps and Reports, 1956-1957
15 Dudley Lake, Photo Negative, Undated
16 Film Script and Photos, 1957
17 Fire Behavior Training Course-Missoula, Montana: Subject Evaluations, April 1958, Undated
18 Fire Danger Daily Record with U.S. Department of Commerce Weather Bureau 10 Day Fire-Weather Record, July 1, 1954-July 10, 1954
19 Fire Lookout Kits, 1954
20-21 Fire Reports, Individual (U.S. Forest Service), 1954-1956
22 Fire Research- "Aerial Volume Tables for Ponderosa Pine Type in the Rocky Mountains" by Karl E. Moessner, 1960
23 Fire Research: "Approximations for the Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of High Temperature Air", C. Frederick Hansen (NASA Technical Report R-50), 1959
24 Fire Research- "Chemical Sampling Downstream of Lean, Flat Hydrogen and Propane Flames" by Burton D. Fine, 1959
25 Fire Research Committee, 1960
26 Fire Research- Committee on Fire Research Minutes, 1959-1960
27 Project Skyfire- Committee on Fire Research Interim Report, December 1, 1957-June 30, 1959, 1959
28 Fire Research-Correspondence and Contact Lists, 1952-1953
29 Fire Research-"Estimating the Area in Logging Roads by Dot Sampling on Aerial Photos" by Karl E. Moesner (U.S. Forest Service), 1960
30 Fire Research-"Fire Behavior in Northern Rocky Mountain Forests" by J.S. Barrows (U.S. Forest Service), 1951
31 Fire Research-Fire Control Notes, July 10, 1960
32-33 Fire Research-Fire Research Abstracts and Reviews, 1958-1959
34 Fire Research- Grant Proposal to U.S. Forest Service, Ca. 1959
35 Fire Research- International Symposium, 1959
36 Fire Research-"Logging Slash Flammability" by George R. Fahnstock (U.S. Forest Service), 1960
37 "Man Pits Himself Against Nature," The Timberman, 1958
38 Fire Research: Fleishmann Photos (Lightning), Undated
39 Fire Research- Missiles Fighting Forest Fires, 1959
40 Fire Research- "Natural Phenomena Exhibited by Forest Fires" by J.S. Barrows, 1959
41 Fire Research- Notebooks, Miscellaneous, 1960, Undated
42 Fire Research- Photos of Schaefer, Undated
43 Fire Research- Proposal for Support of Fire Research, 1958
44 Fire Research- Proposal to National Science Foundation, 1959
45 Fire Research- Review of Literature and Research, 1958
46 Fire Research- "The Roseburg, Oregon, Fire, Explosion and Conflagration, August 7, 1959" by The National Board of Fire Underwriters, Ca. 1959
47 Fire Research- "Study of the Effect of Chemical Treatment on the Thermal Decomposition of Wood First Progress Report, I. Pyrolysis of Untreated Wood," by Walter K. Tang (U.S. Forest Service), 1960
48 Fire Research: "Theories of the Combustion of Wood and its Control: A Survey of the Literature," by Browne (USDA), 1958
49 Fire Research: Training and Planning, 1955, Undated
50 Fire Research: Training Course on Fire Behavior, 1959
51 Fire Research: Training Course on Fire Behavior, 1959
52 Fire Research: U.S. Forest Service Summary Progress Report, November 1, 1958-April 30, 1960
53 Fire Research- U.S. Forest Service Technical Papers by Various Authors, 1957-1960
54 Fire Research: "Water vs. Fire: Fighting Forest Fires with Water," by Alva G. Neuns (U.S. Forest Service), 1950
55 Fire Research: "What Do People Know about Fire Prevention?" C.C. Chandler and J.B. Davis (USDA Miscellaneous Paper No. 50), 1960
56 Fire Research- "What People Think about Fire Law Enforcement," by J.B. Davis and C.C. Chandler (USDA Miscellaneous Paper No. 51), 1960
57 "When the Mountains Roared: Stories of the 1910 Fire," (U.S. Forest Service) and Related Correspondence, 1985, Undated
58 Fire Research: Wisconsin Fire, 1957
59 Flash Report, 1953
60 Forest Fires, 1954-1959
61 Forest Fires: Coal Creek Fire, 1958
62 Forest Fire Research: Maps, Charts, Notes, and Reports, 1958, Undated
Box Folder
8 1 Jet Streams, 1954, 1957
2 Lightning and Thunderstorm Research Reports, 1952
3 "Lightning Fire Research Project", 1952-1954
4 Information on Lookout- Firemen Assigned to Cloud Survey Network, April 2, 1953-June 18, 1953
5 Information on Lookout- Firemen Assigned to Cloud Survey Network With Supplemental Materials, March 30, 1953, Undated
6 Munitalp- Forest Service Cloud Survey Operations Guide, May 28, 1953
7 Lightning Fires, 1953
8 Lightning Photos, Undated
9 Map: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, National Forests- Region One, 1951
10-11 Maps and Data, July 1957-August 1957
12 Memo- Skyfire Field Program, July 9, 1954
13 Missoula, Montana, Photo Slides, Undated
14 Newsletters, Memos, and Research Data, 1955, Undated
15 Northwest Photo Slides, 1950-1953
16 Notebook, 1955
17 Notebook, Miniature, 1956
Oversized
12 Notebooks and equipment instructions- Boxed Separately, 1950s
Box Folder
8 18 Photo Negatives, 1952
19 Photo Negatives, 1952-1960, Undated
20 Photo Slides, 1940-1959
21 Photos, Various, Undated
22 Photos and Measurements, 1957-1960
23 Notebook, 1958
24 Progress Report, 1954
25 "Project Skyfire: A Progress Report on Lightning Fire and Atmospheric Research" by J.S. Barros, V.J. Schaefer and P.B. MacCready Jr. (U.S. Forest Service Research Paper No. 35), 1954
26 Report by Meteorology Research, Inc., 1956
27 Region 4- Annual Fire Narrative Report, 1955
28 Rohn Communication Towers, 1963
29 Severe Storms, Photos, 1959
30 Severe Storms, Photo Negatives, 1952
31 Silver Iodide Seeding, 1958
32 "Skyfire Rumblings" Newsletter, July 23, 1954
33 Skyfire Schools, Photo Negatives, 1948-1960
34 Tentative Conclusions on Skyfire Program, V.J. Schaefer, August 26, 1957
35 Thunderstorms, 1955
36 Thunderstorms and Cloud Seeding, 1956
37 United States Department of Agriculture: Circulars and Reports, 1941, 1956
38 United States Department of Agriculture and Forest Service: A Calibration Test of the California State Division Forestry Airborne Silver Iodide Smoke Generator, 1957
39 United States Department of Agriculture and Forest Service: Project Skyfire Operations Plan- 1957 Field Program, 1957
40 USDA Television Package Photos, 1954-1957
41-43 Various Topics, 1953-1959
Box Folder
9 1 Various Topics, 1953-1959
2 Visits to Laboratories in Europe- Report from W.L. Fons, Ca. 1958
3 Weather Modification, Photo Slides, 1956
4 Wildland Fire Danger Rating Handbooks, Ca. 1962
Flat-File
7 World Aeronautical Map With Handwritten Notations on Lightning Fires, Undated
Box Folder
9 5 Writing Book- Skyfire Observations and Photos, 1954-1956
Subseries 3: Correspondence, 1950-1965,, Undated
Arranged alphabetically
Since Schaefer was Munitalp’s director of research, and Munitalp participated in meteorological projects internationally as well as domestically, Schaefer was constantly in contact with associates all over the globe. The substantial amount of correspondence that he kept from his Munitalp years shows the greatly increased administrative role he held in comparison to his General Electric days.
The letters include letters directed to him alone, letters that colleagues sent to one another but also carbon copied to Schaefer, and carbon copies of correspondence that Schaefer sent out. Most of these files came to the archives bundled together without labels or other identification, while some were singled out by specific people or topics. The archivist kept that arrangement, so researchers will find most of the letters filed under the name “general” and identified by year. Others are titled by a particular person’s name or subject as well as the year. All of the correspondence is arranged chronologically.
Box Folder
10 1 Africa, 1957-1959
2 American Polar Bear Expedition- Paul Seydel, May 27, 1955
3 Aspliden, Carl- Travel, 1957-1959
4 Cooperative Research- Weather Control, 1954-1957
5 Draft of Letter to Malin and Connie Sorsbie- Final Communication, February 14, 1964
6 Educational Program, 1957-1958
7 Evaporation Studies, 1954-1958
8 Falconer, Raymond- Correspondence with Occasional Data, 1954-1958
9 Flower, Jr. Luie C. - Minatare, Nebraska, July 5, 1956, July 31, 1956
10 General, 1950
11 General, 1951
12-13 General, 1952
14-16 General, 1953
17-22 General, 1954
23-26 General, 1955
Box Folder
11 1-4 General, 1955
5-11 General, 1956
12-17 General, 1957
Box Folder
12 1-7 General, 1958
8-10 General, 1959
11 General, 1960
12 General, 1961
13 General, 1962
14 General, 1963
15 General, 1964
16 General, 1965
17 General, Undated
18 Greenland, 1953-1954
19 Harney, Pat- Cameras and Reel Films, February 3, 1958, Undated
20 Invitations/Reservations, 1957
21 Lois Schaefer to Vincent During Trip to Africa, October 1957, Undated
22 MacCready, Paul, 1954-1958
23 Martimer, W.A., 1958
24 Mount Washington Observatory, 1955
25 Mount Washington Observatory, 1956
26 Mount Washington Observatory, 1957-1959
27 Mount Washington Observatory, 1960-1961
28-31 Museum at the Atmosphere, 1957-1959
32 National Science Foundation, 1955-1958
33 Office of Naval Research, 1953-1959
34 Other Weather Professionals, 1959
35 Personnel and Reports, 1953-1958
Subseries 4: Subject Files, 1948-1968, , Undated
Arranged alphabetically
The subject files feature a variety of materials that supplement Schaefer’s Munitalp research documents, such as ephemera from some of his many travels, conference brochures, and weather research activities of groups not affiliated with Munitalp. This subseries also includes administrative files such as personnel information, grant writing endeavors, and budgeting, which are reflections of Schaefer’s role as director of research. There are also photographs of Schaefer and colleagues, non-Skyfire research projects, travels in and out of the United States, and more generic subjects such as research equipment.
Box Folder
13 1 Accounts and Expenses, 1953-1959
2 Activities, 1952-1956
3 Adirondack Conference on Atmospheric Nuclei, 1957-1958
4-5 Adirondack Conference on Atmosphere, Second, 1958-1959
6 Africa Administration, 1958-1959
7 Africa-Postcards (unwritten), Undated
8 Africa Trip (fragment), 1957
9 Africa Trip: Memo and Proposed Itinerary, August 6, 1957
10 Agriculture in the West, 1953
11 Albertus Magnus Guild, 1955
12-14 American Meteorological Society, 1954-1958
Oversized Folder
2 14 American Meteorological Society 120th National Meeting- Photo, January 26, 1953
15 American Meteorological Society: Award for Outstanding Services to the Advance of Meteorology by a Corporation, January 1953
16 American Meteorological Society Meeting, NYU- Photo, January 26, 1955
Box Folder
13 15 Arid Lands, 1953-1955
16 Biological and Chemical Defense Planning Board, 1960
17 "Brief Outline of Atmospheric Research Activities underway by Various Organizations in the United States", November 10, 1958
18 Business Summaries Notebook, 1953
19 Canadian Meteorological Service, 1954
20 Central Park Observatory, 1957
21 Climatic Relations, 1953-1955
22 Cloud Modification Photos and Written Materials- Background for Atmosphere Chapter 8, 1948-1968
23 Conference on the Evaluation of Weather Modification, September 22, 1954-September 24, 1954
24 Contracts, 1953-1954
Oversized Folder
2 17 Daily Olympian: "The Sandy Point Weather Project", 1954
Box Folder
13 25 Denver- Water Needs, ca. 1955
26 European Trip, Notes on, 1954
27 Federation of American Scientists Newsletter, February 10, 1959
28 File Systems, 1956-1960
Oversized
9 Fortune Magazine- "Forecast for Weather Control: Brighter," Francis Bello, May 1958
Box Folder
13 29 General Policy, 1956
30 Geodesy and Geophysics, International Union, 1953-1955
31 Gisborne, H.T.- Obituary, Undated
32 Glaciology on Mount Kenya (IGY), News Clippings, 1957-1958
33-35 Grants, 1953-1959
Oversized
9 Guest Book: Munitalp Offices, New York City, 1954-1960
Box Folder
13 36 Hawaii Institute of Geophysics, 1958
37 Jeppesen R Co, Air Map of United Airlines, Denver, Colorado, 1956
38 Job Applicants, 1954-1958
39 Johnston, Albert Wheeler- Obituaries- Founder of Munitalp, August 25, 1952, Undated
40 Long Range Weather Forecasting Conference- List of Participants, September 1958
41 Johnston, Albert, 1951
42 Mailing Lists and Miscellaneous, 1954-1958
43 Meeting at Princeton Inn- Photos of Schaefer, Unidentified Colleagues, Undated
44 Microcards, 1955-1956
45 Morro Bay Stack, Photo, January 23, 1956
46 Northwest United States Photo Slides, 1948-1953
47 Notebook- M.I.T. Faculty Club, Undated
48-49 Photos, Miscellaneous, Undated
50 "Proceedings: First Forum of the Munitalp Foundation, Inc." Includes Cover Letter from Vernon Crudge, November 14, 1951, January 28, 1952
51 Rossby, Carl-Gustaf, 1955-1957
Box Folder
14 1 Photos for Publication, 1953-1958
2-3 Photos Loaned and Returned, 1959-1967
4 Plans for Africa Trip, October 1957
5 Precipitation Physics, 1958
6 Priest River and Various Meteorology Meetings, 1953-1954
7 Project Skyfire and Jetstream Work, 1955
8 Public Relations, 1956-1957
9 Physical Science Study Committee/Laura Fermi- with Manuscripts Relating to "Monograph on Weather", May 2, 1958, Undated
10 Rensselaer Alumni News, March 1959
11-14 Reprint Requests, 1953-1961
15 Royal Meteorological Society- Meeting Announcements and Meeting Notes, 1948-1950
16 Scandinavian-American Meteorological Meeting- Script for Talk on Lyse Monastery, June 24, 1958
17 Schaefer and Malin Sorsbie, Dispute Over Policy/Procedures in Africa vs. United States, September 11, 1958, December 13, 1958
18 Schaefer, Vincent Taking Pictures out of Window of Plane, Photo, 1955
19 Schaefer, Vincent, Photos, 1956, Undated
20 Schenectady-Photo Negatives- Album for Princess Beatrix of the Netherlands, September 11, 1959
21 Scientific Adventure Kits, 1957
22 Science Forum, Photo, December 30, 1953
23 Security, 1958
Oversized Folder
4 15 Ship Code Card- U.S. Department of Commerce Weather Bureau, Undated
Box Folder
14 24 Skyfire Lookouts- Paul MacCready, Jr., March 29, 1954
25 Slo-Mo-Shun V, Seattle, Photograph, Undated
26 Snow Committee, 1954-1958
27 Snow-Preparations for Film, November 25, 1958
28 Snow Survey Bulletins, 1953-1958
29 Solar-Terrestrial Research, Institute for, 1960
30-31 Sorsbie, Malin, 1957-1959, 1984
32 State Museum Advisory Council, 1956
33 Surface Chemistry, 1954-1956
34 Television Program, 1954-1958
35 Time Lapse Cloud Films, November 4, 1954, October 25, 1957
36 Time Lapse Films, Northern Rocky Mountain Experiment Station, Project Black Sheep, Cloud Seeding, 1952-1953
37 Tornadoes and Tornado Institute, 1954-1955
38 Travel Ephemera- Africa, Germany, England, 1957, Undated
39-43 Trips, 1954-1958
44 United Nations University, 1958
45 Universitätsinstitut für Meteirikigie and Geophysik, February 3, 1954, March 27, 1954
46 University of Missouri, Columbia, October 15, 1954-April 5, 1955
47 U.S. Forest Service Brochure- Fire Control Notes, July 1952
48 Vincent and Lois Schaefer with Unidentified Persons, 1950s
49 Wadati, Dr. Kiyoo- Japanese Central Meteorological Observatory, June 1954-October 1954
50 Weather Control: Adirondack Conference, 1958
51 Weather Control: Advisory Committee on Weather Control, 1953-1958
Box Folder
15 1-2 Weather Control: Advisory Committee on Weather Control, 1953-1958
3 Weather Forecasting Competitions, 1955-1956
4 Weather Inc. Photo Negatives, Undated
5 Weather-Related News Clippings, 1955-1957, Undated
6 Weather-Related Photo Negatives, 1958, 1961, Undated
Subseries 5: Reports & Publications, 1952-1960,, Undated
Arranged chronologically
This subseries is devoted entirely to articles and reports from Schaefer’s Munitalp years. Materials cover a range of topics including Project Skyfire, jet stream studies, cloud seeding, particle studies, and research on the relationship between environmental factors and the weather. Since this subseries is comparatively smaller than the reports and publications for General Electric, works by Schaefer and others are mixed together. The files are arranged chronologically, then alphabetically by article/report title if necessary. Folder titles note the author of each work. For Schaefer’s writings, the archivist noted if there is a manuscript included with the published copy.
Box Folder
16 1 "A Proposed Program for the Munitalp Foundation," V.J. Schaefer, Manuscript Only, Ca. 1952
2 Occasional Papers (0001-0010), October 1952-April 1955
3 "Twinkle of Stars May Show Jet Streams of Wind," Wadsworth Likely, February 10, 1953
4 "The Munitalp Atmospheric Research Project," V.J. Schaefer, May 25, 1953
5 "Cloud Photography Project," V.J. Schaefer, Occasional Paper #2, June 1953
6 "The Use of Clouds for Locating the Jet stream," V.J. Schaefer, October 30, 1953
7 Jet Stream Articles (2) by Captain Bernard C. Frost, December 1953, Undated
8 "Cloud Forms of the Jet Stream," V.J. Schaefer, 1953
9 "Cloud Photography," V.J. Schaefer, 1953
10 "Flying in Jet Stream Winds," Shell Aviation News, Manuscript, 1953
11 Cal Tech Report to Munitalp- Oxygen Isotope, Paul MacCready, Jr., March 29, 1954
12 "Atmospheric Electricity Associated with Jet Streams," V.J. Schaefer, Manuscript, Ca. May 1954
13 "New Frontiers in the Sky," V.J. Schaefer, WGY Science Forum, May 5, 1954
14 "A Possible Explanation of Explosions and Fires Caused by the Electrification of Fine Particle Sprays," V.J. Schaefer, Manuscript Only, June 7, 1954
15 "A Possible Relationship Between the Solar Corona and Weather Conditions in the Central Midwest," E.D. Farthing, September 22, 1954
16 "Cloud and Atmospheric- Electric Observations of the Formative Stages of Worcester, Massachusetts Tornado," R. Falconer and V.J. Schaefer, November 1954
17 "Project Skyfire: A Progress Report on Lightning Fire and Atmospheric Research" by J.S. Barros, V.J. Schaefer and P.B. Macready Jr., November 1954
18 Review of U. Nakaya's Book Snow Crystals- Natural and Artificial, V.J. Schaefer, with letter, December 8, 1954
19 "A Case Study of Jet Stream Clouds," V.J. Schaefer and W.E. Hubert , Occasional Paper #11, with manuscript, December 1954
20 Occasional Papers (0001-0010), December 1954-July 1956
21 "Report of Activities During Field Trip to Hawaiian Islands October 24-November 24, 1954, V.J. Schaefer, Ca. 1954
22 "Jet Streams and Project Skyfire," V.J. Schaefer, with Manuscript, January 1955
23 "High and Low Elevations as Thermal Source Regions", MacCready, Paul B. Jr., February 1955
24 "Thunderstorms and Project Skyfire," V.J. Schaefer, with Manuscript, April 1955
25 "Artificially Induced Precipitation and its Potentialities," V.J. Schaefer, June 1955
26 "Nuclei, Water Drops, and Ice Crystals II," V.J. Schaefer, with Manuscript, June 1955