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AFRO-LATIN AMERICA


This guide has been created by Gabriel Duque.

Scope

The purpose of this guide is to introduce students and faculty to information sources in the University at Albany’s Libraries having to do with Afro-Latin America. Both print and electronic sources are included. This guide is selective in nature and is not intended to be a comprehensive list on the subject. All of the print sources are located at the University Library at the uptown campus. The electronic sources are available on workstations in all three libraries of the University. Most of the electronic sources are also accessible off campus via the Internet for registered University at Albany borrowers with valid University at Albany identification cards.

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Key to Abbreviations

IMC…………………..Interactive Media Center

REF…………………..Reference Area

STOR...........................Storage

ULIB…………………University Library

ULIB-R………………University Library Reserves

*……….……………..Over Sized Books

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Subject Headings

The University at Albany Libraries uses Library of Congress Subject Headings to classify and catalog all materials. When doing a subject search in Minerva, it is useful to be familiar with the specific terms that are used to describe items pertaining to Afro-Latin America. The following are some examples of Library of Congress Subject Headings that may be used when searching for materials. You may substitute the country or region in these examples with others, depending on your research topic.

African Diaspora Latin America Race Relations
Blacks Latin America History Mestizaje in Literature
Blacks Uruguay Racism Brazil
Brazil Civilization African Influences Slavery Latin America
Ethnicity Latin America Slavery Cuba

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Key Resources

Print

This is the most comprehensive and well researched history of people of African descent in Latin America from emancipation to the present. This is an essential source.

This pioneering collection of essays presents a comprehensive picture of the black experience in colonial Latin America and draws on previously unused sources. It includes translated primary documents.

This is the most comprehensive historical overview of the notion of mestisaje, analyzing the discourse of artists and intellectuals, from the late 19th century until the present.

This is an important interdisciplinary collection from prominent authors focusing on the cultural impact that people from African descent have had on Latin America. Translated from the Spanish.

This is the first comprehensive history of the people of African origin in Spanish-speaking Latin America. It is divided into two parts: "I: The Colonial Period" and "II: Since Independence". It is a vital source on the topic.

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Electronic

  • Afro-Latinos: An Annotated Guide for Collection Building

    This research guide includes detailed information on books, journals, reference sources, films, databases and web resources that offer information on Afro-Latinos.

  • Blacks in Latin America and the Caribbean Research Sources

    This electronic research guide maintained by the Universiy of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Duke University contains information on books, academic journal articles, reference sources sample subject headings, country information, fils, news articles and Web sites.

  • LANIC-African Diaspora

    This portal contains an extensive list of very useful web pages organized by region and country.


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    Resources by Topic

    General Resources

    Appelbaum, Nancy P., Macpherson, Anne S. and Rosemblatt, Karin A., eds. Race & Nation in Modern Latin America. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2003, 329 p. [ULIB F 1413 R33 2003] This historical study of race relations after the colonial period includes the following chapters dealing with Afro-Latin America: "Imagining the Colonial Nation: Race, Gender and Middle-Class Politics in Belize, 1888-1898", "From Revolution to Involution in the Early Cuban Republic: Conflicts over Race, Class, and Nation, 1902-1906", "Interracial Courtship in the Rio de Janeiro Courts, 1918-1940" and "Racializing Regional Differences: Sao Pablo versus Brazil, 1932".

    Bastide, Roger. African Civilisations in the New World. New York: Harper & Row, 1971, 232 p. [ULIB E 29 N3 B4213 1971A] This study deals with the cultural adaptation of people of African descent since slavery, with an emphasis on religious beliefs. Originally published in French, it includes statistical tables.

    Carvalho, José Jorge de. Las culturas afroamericanas en Iberoamérica : lo negociable y lo innegociable. Bogotá : Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Facultad de Artes, 2005, 71 p. [ULIB F 1419 N4 C37X 2005]

    Chasteen, John C. and Castro-Klarén, Sara, eds. Beyond Imagined Communities: Reading and Writing the Nation in Nineteenth-century Latin America. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 2003, 252 p. [ULIB F 1412 B49 2003]

    Comas, Juan. Relaciones Inter-raciales en América Latina: 1940-1960. México: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 1961, 77 p. [ULIB F 1419 A1 C6] This text contains an essay on racial discrimination; a selective overview of research on race relations organized by region; a brief bibliography by region, and an index of authors.

    Davis, Darién J., ed. Beyond Slavery: The Multilayered Legacy of Africans in Latin America and the Caribbean. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2007, 289 p. [ULIB F 1419 N4 B49 2007]

    Dominguez, Jorge I., ed. Race and Ethnicity in Latin America. New York: Garland Pub., 1994, 371 p. [ULIB F 1419 A1 R33 1994]

    Dzidzienyo, Anani and Oboler, Suzanne, eds. Neither Enemies nor Friends: Latinos, Blacks, Afro-Latinos. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005, 323 p. [ULIB E 29 A1 N45 2005]

    Dzidzienyo, Anani. The Position of Blacks in Brazilian and Cuban Society. London: Minority Rights Group, 1979, 28 p. [ULIB* F 2659 N4 D94 1979]

    Forester, Robert F. The Racial Problems Involved in Immigration From Latin America and the West Indies to the United States. San Francisco CA: R. & E. Research Associates, 1971, 62 p. [ULIB F 1419 A1 F64X 1971] Originally published in 1925 by the U.S. Department of Labor, this text reflects racial views prevalent at the time. It includes a chapter on racial composition by country and statistical tables on Latin American immigrants in the U.S.

    Franco, José L. La presencia negra en el Nuevo Mundo. La Habana, Cuba: Casa de las Américas, 1968, 135 p. [ULIB F 1419 N4 F7] This is a historical study on the black presence in Latin America in colonial times. It includes articles on the process of colonization, Afro-Latin religion and maroon communities.

    Gallardo, Jorge E. Presencia africana en la cultura de América Latina: vigencia de los cultos afroamericanos. Buenos Aires: F. García Cambeiro, 1986, 123 p. [ULIB BL 2490 G33 1986] This source deals with the cultural and historical context of religious ideas in Latin America that have African origins.

    Graham, Richard, ed. The Idea of Race in Latin America, 1870-1940. Austin,TX: University of Texas Press, 1990, 135 p. [ULIB F 1419 A1 I34 1990]

    Guillot, Carlos F. Negros rebeldes y negros cimarrones; perfil afroamericano en la historia del Nuevo Mundo durante el siglo XVI. Buenos Aires: Librería y Editorial "El Ateneo", 1961, 309 p. [ULIB F 1419 N4 G8] This source deals with slave rebellions and maroon settlements in Latin America in the 16th century.

    Harris, Marvin. Patterns of Race in the Americas. New York: Walker, 1964, 154 p. [ULIB F 1419 A1 H3]

    Knight, Franklin W. Race, Ethnicity and Class: Forging the Plural Society in Latin America and the Caribbean. Waco, TX: Baylor University Press, 1996, 51 p. [ULIB F 1419 A1 K6 1996]

    Landers, Jane G. and Robinson, Barry M., eds. Slaves, Subjects, and Subversives: Blacks in Colonial Latin America. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press, 2006, 318 p. [ULIB F 1419 N4 S53 2006] This pioneering collection of essays presents a comprehensive picture of the black experience in colonial Latin America and draws on previously unused sources. It includes translated primary documents.

    Levine, Robert M. Race and Ethnic Relations in Latin America and the Caribbean: A Historical Dictionary and Bibliography. Metuchen , NJ : Scarecrow Press, 1980, 252 p. [ULIB F 1419 A1 L48] This source contains two sections; a selective dictionary related to racial and ethnic terms and a selected bibliography of 1,342 books and articles arranged by region and covering most of the 20th century through 1979, with emphasis on Brazil, the Caribbean and Mexico.

    Martinez Montiel, Luz M. Afroamerica I: La ruta del esclavo. Mexico, D.F.: Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 2006, 299 p. [ULIB HT 1052.5 M37X 2006] This source presents an ethnocultural study of slavery in the Americas from the 16th century until its abolition.

    Mignolo, Walter. The Idea of Latin America. Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub., 2005, 198 p. [ULIB F 1406 M54 2005] This book explores the history of the concept of Latin America and proposes a different model which takes into account the populations of indigenous and African descent.

    Minority Groups Rights, ed. No Longer Invisible: Afro-Latin Americans Today. London: Minority Rights Publications, 1995, 401 p. [ULIB F 1419 N4 N6X 1995]

    Mörner, Magnus, ed. Race and Class in Latin America. New York: Columbia University Press, 1970, 309 p. [ULIB F 1419 A1 C65 1965] This text includes some sections dealing directly with Afro-Latin American topics: "Part I: The Abolition of Slavery and Its Aftermath"; and "Part II: Immigration, Stratification, and Race Relations". It includes articles on Mexico, Uruguay, Brazil, Peru and the Dominican Republic.

    Persons, Georgia A., ed., Race and Democracy in the Americas. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2003, 260 p. [ULIB E 29 N3 R295X 2003] Most articles in this anthology deal with race and politics with a strong emphasis on Brazil and the United States in the twentieth century.

    Persons, Georgia A., ed. Race and Ethnicity in Comparative Perspective. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 1999, 313 p. [ULIB K 3242 R34X 1999] This collection of articles deal with race-based social and political movements in the U.S., Brazil and Europe.

    Restall, Mathew. Beyond Black and Red: African-Native Relations in Colonial Latin America. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2005, 303 p. [ULIB F 1419 A1 B49 2005] This source compiles nine varied essays dealing with interactions between people of African descent and indiginous groups in different areas of Latin America during the colonial period.

    Rosow, Eugene. Roots of Rhythm. New York: New Video Group, 2001(Videocassette). [IMC M 1681 C8 R66V 2001] This documentary presents a historical view of the African roots in popular Latin American and Caribbean musical genres such as Latin Jazz, Salsa and Latin pop.

    Sagrera, Martin. Los racismos en América " Latina". Buenos Aires: Ediciones La Bastilla, 1974, 518 p. [ULIB F 1419 A1 S23] This source discusses the history of racism in Latin America and compares it to that of the U.S. from the colonial period up to the 1970s.

    Thompson, Alvin O. Flight to Freedom: African Runaways and Maroons in the Americas. Kingston, Jamaica: University of West Indies Press, 2006, 381 p. [ULIB F 1884 T58X 2006] This text is an important history of maroon communities in the Americas.

    Toplin, Robert B., ed. Slavery and Race Relations in Latin America. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1974, 450 p. [ULIB HT 1052.5 T66]

    UNESCO. Race and Class in Post-colonial Society: A Study of Ethnic Group Relations in the English-speaking Caribbean, Chile and Mexico. Paris: Unesco, 1977, 458 p. [ULIB F 1419 A1 R3] Part one, "Inter-Ethnic Relations in the Caribbean", contains three sociological essays dealing with people of African origin.

    Wade, Peter. Race and Ethnicity in Latin America. London: Pluto Press, 1997, 152 p. [ULIB GN 564 L29W33 1997]

    Whitten, Norman E., Black Frontiersmen; a South American Case. Cambridge, MA: Schenkman Pub. Co.,1974, 221 p. [ULIB F 3799 N4 W49 1974] This is an ethnographic study of Afro-Hispanic frontier communities in Ecuador, Panama and Colombia. It includes a glossary.

    Whitten, Norman E. Blackness in Latin America and the Caribbean: Social Dynamics and Cultural Transformations. Indianapolis, IN: Indiana University Press, 1998, 2v. [ULIB F 1419 N4 B53 1998] This valuable source contains 36 interdisciplinary essays concentrating on black settlements and community patterns in the late 20th century. It is divided into two volumes: " Central America and Northern and Western South America" and " Eastern South America and the Caribbean"

    Whitten, Norman E., ed. LAAG contributions to Afro-American Ethnohistory in Latin America and the Caribbean. Washington: Latin American Anthropology Group, 1976, 66 p. [ULIB F 1419 N4 L3 1976] This source includes six anthropological essays relating to ethnic groups from Mexico, Trinidad, Haiti, Surinam and Colombia-Venezuela.

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    Diaspora

    Curtin, Philip D. Migration and Mortality in Africa and the Atlantic World, 1700-1900. Aldershot, England: Ashgate/Variorum, 2001, 1 v. (various pagings). [ULIB DT 352.7 C87 2001] This text contains two articles pertinent to Afro-Latin American studies: "The Declaration of the Rights of Man in Saint-Domingue, 1788-1791" and " Africa and Global Patterns of Migration".

    Davis, Darien J., ed. Slavery and Beyond: The African Impact on Latin America and the Caribbean. Wilmington, DE: SR Books, 1995, 301 p. [ULIB F 1408.3 S515 1995] This is a selective compilation of articles on the African Diaspora in Latin America. It includes a short glossary, an annotated bibliography organized by topic and a filmography.

    Falola, Toyin and Childs, Matt D., eds. The Yoruba Diaspora in the Atlantic World. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2004, 455 p. [ULIB E 29 Y67 Y67 2004] This multidisciplinary anthology explores the experience of the Yoruba people in Africa and the Americas from the seventeenth to the twentieth century.

    Green, Charles. Globalization and Survival in the Black Diaspora: the New Urban Challenge. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1997, 396 p. [ULIB HT 1581 G694 1997]

    Hine, Darlene Clark and McLeod Jacqueline eds. Crossing Boundaries: Comparative History of Black People in Diaspora. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1999, 491 p. [ULIB E 29 N3 C76 1999]

    Irwin, Graham W. Africans Abroad: a Documentary History of the Black Diaspora in Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean during the Age of Slavery. New York: Columbia University Press, 1977, 408 p. [ULIB HT 861 A4]

    Mann, Kristin and Bay, Edna G., eds. Rethinking the African Diaspora : The Making of a Black Atlantic World in the Bight of Benin and Brazil. London: F. Cass, 2001, 160 p. [ULIB DT 16.5 R48 2001]

    Price, Sally. Maroon Arts: Cultural Vitality in the African Diaspora. Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 1999, 369 p. [ULIB NX 537.2 A1 P76 1999] This is an anthropological study of the art forms of maroon communities in Surinam. It includes over 300 images.

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    Mestizaje

    Buisseret, David, and Reinhardt, Steven G. Creolization in the Americas. Arlington TX: Texas A&M University, 2000, 145 p. [ULIB E 29 A1 C74 2000] This historical work deals mostly with the U.S., but includes a chapter titled "The Process of Creolization in Seventeenth-Century Jamaica".

    Le Riverend, Julio. Estudios sobre el criollo. La Habana, Cuba: Editora Política, 2005, 164 p. [ULIB F 1419 C73 L47X 2005]This is a historical study of the creole in Latin America with emphasis on Cuba by a renowned Cuban historian.

    Miller, Marilyn Grace, Rise and Fall of the Cosmic Race: The Cult of Mestisaje in Latin America. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2004, 202 p. [ULIB-R F 1414 M545 2004] This is the most comprehensive historical overview of the notion of mestisaje, analyzing the discourse of artists and intellectuals, from the late 19th century until the present.

    Mörner, Magnus. Race Mixture in the History of Latin America. Boston, MA: Little Brown, 1967, 178 p. [ULIB F 1419 A1 M6] This source deals with the historical background of race relations, including the following sections and essays: "African Antecedents", "The Negro and Early Race Mixture", "Race and Society in Brazil", "Negro Slavery" and "Abolition's Effect on Plantation America".

    Phaf, Ineke. Presencia criolla en el Caribe y América Latina = Creole Presence in the Caribbean and Latin America. Frankfurt am Main: Vervuert; Madrid: Iberoamericana, 1996, 129 p. [ULIB F 2169 P74X 1996]

    Solaun, Mauricio, and Kronus, Sidney. Discrimination Without Violence: Miscegenation and Racial Conflict in Latin America. New York: Wiley, 1973, 240 p. [ULIB HN 310 C37 S64]

    Vasconcelos, Jose. The Cosmic Race: A Bilingual Edition. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press, 1997, 126 p. [ULIB-R F 2217 V2513 1997] This source presents an influential essay on the mixture of races, originally written in 1925 by this important Mexican author in Spanish and English. The introduction by translator Didier T, Jaen provides historical and cultural context.

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    Literature

    Jackson, Richard L. The Afro-Spanish American Author: an Annotated Bibliography of Criticism. New York: Garland Pub., 1980, 129 p. [ULIB PQ 7081 Z999 J33X]

    Jackson, Richard L. The Afro-Spanish American Author II: the 1980s: an Annotated Bibliography of Recent Criticism. West Cornwall, CT: Locust Hill Press, 1989, 154 p. [ULIB PQ 7081 Z999 J33X 1989]

    Jackson, Richard L. Black Literature and Humanism in Latin America. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1988, 166 p. [ULIB PQ 7081 J263 1988]

     Jackson, Richard L. The Black Image in Latin American Literature. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press, 1976, 174 p. [ULIB PQ 7081 J26]

    Jackson, Richard L. Black Writers and the Hispanic Canon. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1997, 139 p. [ULIB PQ 7081 J2635 1997]

    Jackson, Richard L. Black Writers and Latin America: Cross-Cultural Affinities. Washington, DC: Howard University Press, 1998, 207 p. [ULIB PS 153 N5 J38 1998]

    Jackson, Richard L. Black Writers in Latin America. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press, 1979, 224 p. [ULIB PQ 7081 J264]

    Lewis, Marvin A. Afro-Hispanic Poetry, 1940-1980: From Slavery to "Negritud" in South American Verse. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 1983, 190 p. [ULIB PQ 7552 P7 L49 1983]

    Pérez, Janet. Afro-Hispanic Literature. Lubbock, TX: Classical and Modern Languages, Texas Tech. University, 1999, 283 p. [ULIB PQ 7081 A445X 1999] This source is volume XV of a scholarly journal titled Monographic Review. This issue is devoted to recent research in the topic of Afro-Hispanic Literature. It contains 19 articles, 5 book reviews and a selective bibliography. Most essays are in Spanish and a few are in English.

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    Resources by Country/Area

    Argentina

    Andrews, George Reid. The Afro-Argentines of Buenos Aires: 1800-1900. Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1980, 286 p. [ULIB F 3001.9 B55 A52 1980] This is an important and well researched general history of Argentines of African descent.

    Becco, Horacio J. Negros y morenos en el cancionero rioplatense. Buenos Aires: Sociedad Argentina de Americanistas, 1953, 70 p. [ULIB PQ 7791 R5 B4] This is a compilation of songs about or by people of African descent in Argentina, from the 19th and 20th centuries.

    Fortes, Jorge. Afroargentinos = Afroargentines. Buenos Aires: Filmagen Producciones; Lagartija Muda Producciones; New York: Distributed by Latin American Video Archives, 2002 (Videocassette). [ULIB-R F 3021 N3 A47V 2002] This documentary explores the invisibility of people of African descent in Argentinian culture and history.

    Gallardo, Jorge E. Etnias africanas en el Rio de la Plata. Buenos Aires: Centro de Estudios Latinoamericanos, 1989, 37 p. [ULIB F 2909 G35 1989] This source deals with people of African descent in Urugay and Argentina.

    Lewis, Marvin A. Afro-Argentine Discourse: Another Dimension of the Black Diaspora. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 1996, 148 p. [ULIB PQ 7623 B57 L4 1996]

    Nouzeilles, Gabriela and Montaldo, Greciela, eds. The Argentina Reader: History, Culture, Politics. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2002, 536 p. [ULIB F 2810 A646 2002]

    Ramos, Víctor. Racismo y discriminación en la Argentina. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Editorial Catálogos, 1999, 213 p. [ULIB F 3021 A1 R35 1999] This is a study on the nature of racism and discrimination in Argentina by an important Argentinian researcher.

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    Brazil

    Alves, Rodrigues. A ecologia do grupo afro-brasileiro. Rio de Janeiro: Ministério da Educaçâo e Cultura, Serviço de Documentaçâo, 1966, 106 p. [ULIB F 2659 N4 A4] This study includes chapters on racist racial theories, Human Rights and discrimination and the role that social workers can play to improve the situation of Afro-Brasilians.

    Bastide, Roger.The African Religions of Brazil : Toward a Sociology of the Interpenetration of Civilizations. Baltimore : Johns Hopkins University Press, 1978, 494 p. [ULIB BL 2590 B7 B3713] This wide-ranging sociological study of Afro-Brazilian society and relegion, from slavery to the present was first published in 1960.

    Bastide, Roger. Estudos afro-brasileiros. São Paulo: Editora Perspectiva, 1973, 384 p. [ULIB F 2659 N4 B37X 1973] This source by an important French sociologist and anthropologist, deals with the culture and religious beliefs of people of African descent in Brasil.

    Brewer, Geovanni. Bahia: Africa in the Americas. Los Angeles: Brewer Media Associates, 2006 (Videocassette). [ULIB-R F 2551 B33V 2006] This is a well produced documentary depicting Afro-Brazilian cultural practices in the city of Bahia, especially those related to the candomble and umbanda religions.

    Carneiro, Edison. Ladinos e crioulos; estudos sôbre o negro no Brasil. Rio de Janeiro: Civilização Brasileira, 1964, 240 p. [ULIB F 2659 N4 C32]

    Cascudo, Luís da Câmara, Made in Africa; pesquisas e notas. Rio de Janeiro: Editôra Civilizaçõ Brasileira, 1965, 193 p. [ULIB F 2510 C355] This source is an ethnographic study of the reciprocal cultural and social influences between Africa and Brazil since slavery.

    Crook, Larry and Johnson, Randal, eds. Black Brazil: Culture, Identity, and Social Mobilization. Los Angeles, CA: UCLA Latin American Center Publications, University of California, Los Angeles, 1999, 400 p. [ULIB F 2659 N4 B53 1999]

    Degler, Carl N. Neither Black nor white : Slavery and Race Relations in Brazil and the United States. Madison, Wis.: University of Wisconsin Press, 1986, 302 p. [ULIB F 2659 N4 D42 1986] This volume, originally published in 1971 is a groundbreaking comparative study of slavery in Brazil and the United States.

    Fernandes, Florestan. A integração do negro na sociedade de classes. São Paulo: Dominus Editôra, 1965, 2 v. [ULIB F 2659 N4 F4] This book explores the integration of Afro-Brasilians into the economy and society of São Paulo in the twentieth century. Topics include race relations, protest movements and equality.

    Fernandes, Florestan. The Negro in Brazilian society. New York: Columbia University Press, 1969, 489 p. [ULIB F 2659 N4 F413]

    Freitas, Décio. Palmares: la guerrilla negra. Montevideo, Uruguay: Editorial Nuestra América 1971, 176 p. [ULIB F 2651 P15 F7318] This book, written by a Brazilian historian and journalist, deals with an important seventeenth century maroon settlement (quilombo) called Palmares and one of its leaders, Zumbi.

    Freyre, Gilberto. The Gilberto Freyre Reader. New York: Knopf, 1974, 253 p. [ULIB AC 75 F6966 1974]

    Freyre, Gilberto. O escravo nos anúncios de jornais brasileiros do século XIX. Recife, Brasil: Imprênsa Universitária, 1963, 224 p. [STOR HT 1126 F7] This source is an anthropological study of newspaper ads having to do with slaves in nineteenth-century Brazil, written by one of the most influential Brazial intellectuals.

    Freyre, Gilberto. The Masters and the Slaves (Casa-grande & senzala): A Study in the Development of Brazilian Civilization. New York: Knopf, 1964, 432 p. [ULIB F 2510 F7522 1964]

    Hanchard, Michael, ed. Racial Politics in Contemporary Brazil. Durham NC: Duke University Press, 1999, 225 p. [ULIB F 2659 N4 R25 1999]

    Hellwig, David J. ed. African-American Reflections on Brazil's Racial Paradise. Philadelphia: Temple Univerity Press, 1992, 258 p. [ULIB F 2659 N4 A34 1992] This source compiles a collection of essays on race relations and racism in Brazil written by Afro-Americans in the twentieth century. The unifying theme of the essays is the analyisis of racial democracy.

    Kraay, Hendrik. Afro-Brazilian Culture and Politics: Bahia, 1790s to 1990s. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1998, 208 p. [ULIB F 2551 A35 1998]

    Kraay, Hendrik. Race, State, and Armed Forces in Independence-era Brazil : Bahia, 1790’s-1840’s. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2001, 362 p. [ULIB F 2651 S1357 K73 2001]

    Luna, Luiz. O negro na luta contra a escravidão. Rio de Janeiro: Ed. Leiture, 1968, 239 p. [STOR HT 1128 L8]

    McGregor, Pedro. Jesus of the Spirits. New York: Stein and Day, 1967, 238 p. [ULIB BF 1622 B7 M3 1967] This is a history of the Spiritist movement in Brazil, including elements that have an African origin.

    Medonça, Maisa. Axe. New York: Latin American Video Archives, 1994 (Videocassette). [ULIB-R F 2659 N4 A94V 1988A] This documentary commemorates the one hundredth anniversary of the abolition of slavery in Brazil. It presents a discussion on the situation of people of African descent and the influence of African culture in Brazilian society.

    Monk, Abraham. Black and White Race Relations in Brazil. Buffalo, NY: Council on International Studies, State University of New York at Buffalo, 1971, 56 p. [ULIB F 2659 N4 M74X]

    Nabuco, Joaquim. Abolitionism: the Brazilian Antislavery Struggle. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, c1977. [ULIB HT 1128 N213]

    Nascimento, Abdias do. Africans in Brazil: a Pan-African Perspective. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 1992, 218 p. [ULIB F 2659 N4 N36 1992] This volume is a study on Pan-Africanism emphasizing Brazil but also covering South and Central America. It includes an autobiographical chapter by this leading Afro-Brazilian scholar.

    Nascimento, Abdias do. Brazil, Mixture or Massacre? : Essays in the Genocide of a BlackPeople. Dover, MA: Majority Press, 1989, 214 p. [ULIB F 2659 N4 N3713 1989] This volume by a leading scholar of African Diaspora studies, first published in 1979, deals with race relations, racism and miscegination in Brazilian politics and culture. It includes a glossary.

    Nascimento, Elisa L. The Sorcery of Color: Identity, Race, and Gender in Brazil. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 2007, 324 p. [ULIB F 2659 N4 N38513 2007] This volume, originally published in 2003 in portuguese, combines racial and feminist studies to analyze Afro-Brazilian social movements in the 20th century. It includes a list of abbreviations and a glossary.

    Nina Rodrigues, Raymundo. Os africanos no Brasil. Sao Paulo: Companhia editora nacional, 1932, 409 p. [ULIB F 2659 N4 N6] This pioneering work by an important physician and anthropologist deals with social and cultural aspects of the population of African descent in Brazil.

    Oliver, Eileen C. Afro-Brazilian Religions: a Selected Annotated Bibliography, 1900-1997. Austin, TX: SALALM Secretariat, Benson Latin American Collection, The General Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin, 1998, 197 p. [ULIB BL 2590 B7 Z991 1998]

    Reichmann, Rebecca L., ed. Race in Contemporary Brazil: From Indifference to Inequality. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1999, 290 p. [ULIB F 2659 N4 R245 1999]

    Russell-Wood, A. J. R. The Black Man in Slavery and Freedom in Colonial Brazil. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1982, 295 p. [ULIB F 2659 N4 R86 1982]

    Silva, Martiniano José da. Racismo à brasileira : raízes históricas. Brasil: Thesaurus Editora, 1987, 301 p. [ULIB F 2659 N4 S5 1987] This source, first published in 1958, is a critical historical analysis of racism in Brazil from slavery to the present, in response to what the author calls "the myth of Brazilian racial democracy". It includes facsimiles of several primary documents.

    Twine, France W. Racism in a Racial Democracy : The Maintenance of White Supremacy in Brazil. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1998, 175 p. [F 2659 N4 T86 1998]

    Wesley, Dorothy Porter. Afro-Braziliana: a Working Bibliography. Boston, MA: G. K. Hall, 1978, 294 p. [ULIB F 2659 N4 Z991]

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    Caribbean Area

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    General Resources - Caribbean

    Burton, Richard D. E. Afro-Creole: Power, Opposition, and Play in the Caribbean. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1997, 297 p. [ULIB F 1874 B8 1997] This is a selective study of Afro-Caribbean culture from slavery to the present, focusing on Jamaica, Trinidad and Haiti.

    Chevannes, Barry. Rastafari and Other African-Caribbean Worldviews. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Macmillan in association with the Institute of Social Studies, 1995, 282 p. [ULIB BL 2532 R37 R39X 1995]

    Fernández Olmos, Margarite, and Paravisini-Gebert, Lizabeth. Creole Religions of the Caribbean : an Introduction from Vodou and Santería to Obeah and Espiritismo. New York: New York University Press, 2003, 262 p. [ULIB BL 2565 F47 2003] This is a well researched and comprehensive introductory text. It is a good starting point for research; includes a glossary and an extensive bibliography.

    Gopaul, Lina. The Darker Side of Black. New York: Filmakers Library, 1994 (Videocassette). [IMC ML 128 B45 D37V 1994] This documentary deals with attitudes on sexuality and violence in ragga and rap music in Jamaica, the U.S. and Britain.

    Laguerre, Michel S. Afro-Caribbean Folk Medicine. South Hadley, MA: Bergin & Garvey, 1987, 120 p. [ULIB GR 120 L34 1987]

    Pradel, Lucie. African Beliefs in the New World: Popular Literary Traditions of the Caribbean. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 2000, 316 p. [ULIB BL 2565 P73 2000] A study of the contributions of people of African descent to Caribbean culture as reflected in religion, oral traditions and literature. It is translated from the French.

    Smith, Faith. Creole Recitations: John Jacob Thomas and Colonial Formation in the Late Nineteenth-Century Caribbean. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press, 2002, 207 p. [ ULIB CT 388 T48 S55 2002]

    Taylor, Patrick, ed. Nation Dance: Religion, Identity, and Cultural Difference in the Caribbean. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2001, 220 p. [ULIB BL 2565 N38 2001] This source is an interdisciplinary anthology divided into three parts: “I Spirituality, Healing, and the Divine”; “II Theology, Society and Politics”; and “III Religion, Identity, and Diaspora”.

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    Cuba

    Ayorinde, Christine. Afro-Cuban Religiosity, Revolution, and National Identity. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 2004, 283 p. [ULIB BL 2532 S3 A96 2004] This source covers from the colonial period to the present with an emphasis on the revolutionary period. It includes a glossary and an extensive bibliography.

    Barnet, Miguel. Afro-Cuban Religions. Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener Publishers, 2001, 160 p. [ULIB BL 2530 C9 B3713 2001]

    Basso Ortiz, Alessandra. Los gangá en Cuba : la comunidad de Matanzas. La Habana: Fundación Fernando Ortiz, 2005, 193 p. [ULIB F 1819 P47 B37X 2005] This is an ethnographic study about the influence of the gangá ethnic group on Cuban culture, with an emphasis on religious beliefs.

    Bronfman, Alejandra. Measures of Equality: Social Science, Citizenship, and Race in Cuba, 1902-1940. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2004, 234 p. [ULIB F 1789 A1 B76 2004] This study explores the notion of race and equality through an analysis of scientific, legal and political ideas. It includes a list of archival sources and an extensive bibliography.

    Cabrera, Lydia. Afro-Cuban tales = Cuentos negros de Cuba. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2004, 169 p. [ULIB GR 121 C8 C3213 2004]

    Castillo Bueno, María de los Reyes. Reyita: the Life of a Black Cuban Woman in the Twentieth Century. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2000, 182 p. [ULIB F 1789 N3 C37X 2000] This book is a life history or testimonio focusing on every day life and spanning over 90 years. It touches on the topic of blanqueamiento (whitening), and includes a short "further reading" list.

    De la Fuente, Alejandro. A Nation for All: Race, Inequality, and Politics in Twentieth-Century Cuba. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2001, 449 p. [ULIB F 1789 A1 F84 2001] This text is a well researched study, organized chronologically, with an extensive bibliography.

    Deschamps Chapeaux, Pedro. El negro en la economía habanera del siglo XIX. La Habana, Cuba: Unión de Escritores y Artistas de Cuba, 1971, 202 p. [ULIB F 1789 N3 D47X]This is a history of black artisans in Habana covering the period from 1820 to 1845. It analyzes their role in the economy, race relations and class.

    Deschamps Chapeaux, Pedro. El negro en el periodismo cubano en el siglo XIX; ensayo bibliográfico. Habana, Cuba: Ediciones Revolución, 1963, 110 p. [ULIB PN 4937 N4 D4] This is a study of journalists of African descent in nineteenth century Cuba.

    Dzidzienyo, Anani. The Position of Blacks in Brazilian and Cuban Society. London: Minority Rights Group, 1979, 28 p. [ULIB* F 2659 N4 D94 1979]

    Fernandez, Damian J and Betancourt, Madeline C., eds. Cuba, the Elusive Nation: Interpretations of National Identity. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 2000, 317 p. [ULIB F 1760 C835X 2000]

    Fernández Robaina, Tomás. El negro en Cuba, 1902-1958: apuntes para la historia de la lucha contra la discriminación racial. La Habana, Cuba: Editorial de Ciencias Sociales, 1990, 225 p. [ULIB F 1789 N3 R6 1990] This text is a history of the fight against racial prejudice and discrimination based on newspaper research. It includes a chronology of the first Cuban black political party (Partido Independiente de Color).

    Fuentes Guerra, Jesús and Schwegler, Armin. Lengua y ritos del Palo Monte Mayombe: dioses cubanos y sus fuentes africanas. Frankfurt am Main: Vervuert; Madrid: Iberoamericana, 2005, 258 p. [ULIB BL 2566 C9 F845X 2005] This ethnographic and linguistic study explores an important branch of Afro-Cuban religion called Palo Monte or Palo Regla.

    Gonzalez, Michelle A. Afro-Cuban Theology: Religion, Race, Culture, and Identity. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 2006, 191 p. [ULIB BT 82.7 G66 2006]

    Greenbaum, Susan D. More than Black : Afro-Cubans in Tampa. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 2002, 383 p. [ULIB F 319 T2 G69 2002]

    Helg, Aline. Our Rightful Share: The Afro-Cuban Struggle for Equality, 1886-1912. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995, 361 p. [ULIB F 1789 N3 H45 1995] This important work deals with race, culture and politics during Cuba's transition from colony to independent state. It is well researched and rich in primary and secondary sources. It includes an extensive bibliography.

    Howard, Philip A. Changing History: Afro-Cuban Cabildos and Societies of Color in the Nineteenth Century. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 1998, 227 p.[ULIB F 1789 N3 H68 1998] This important historical work explores the role played by Afro-Cuban mutual aid societies with respect to race, class, and cultural adaptation. It includes maps, statistical tables and an annotated archival sources list.

    Lachatañeré, R. El sistema Religioso de los Afrocubanos. La Habana, Cuba: Ciencias Sociales, 2004, 414 p. [ULIB BL 2566 C9 L33X 2004] This source compiles the pioneering books and articles written by the author about Afro-Cuban religious practices in the 1930s and 1940s.

    La Rosa Corzo, Gabino. Runaway Slave Settlements in Cuba: Resistance and Repression. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003, 292 p. [ULIB F 1845 L3713 2003] Translated from the Spanish, this archeological and historical study is the most detailed account of runaway slave settlements in Cuba from 1737 to 1850. It includes statistical tables, maps and a glossary.

    López Valdés, Rafael L. Africanos de Cuba.San Juan, PR: Centro de Estudios Avanzados de Puerto Rico y el Caribe, 2002, 324 p. [ULIB F 1789 N3 L65 2002] This anthropological study emphasizes African ethnic groups and their cultural impact in Cuba, spanning 400 years of slave trade. It is richly illustrated and includes a detailed bibliography.

    Matibag, Eugenio. Afro-Cuban Religious Experience: Cultural Reflections in Narrative. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 1996, 300 p. [ULIB BL 2566 C9 M38 1996]

    Millet, José. Tiembla tierra : arte ritual afrocubano = Afrocuban Ritual Art. Santiago de Compostela, Spain: Fundación Eugenio Granell, 1998, 133 p. [ULIB BL 2566 C9 T54X 1998] This is the catalog for an exhibition held in Pamplona, Spain in 1998 on Afro-Cuban ritual art from variuos religions.

    Montejo Arrechea, Carmen Victoria. Sociedades negras en Cuba, 1878-1960. La Habana, Cuba: Editorial de Ciencias Sociales: Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo de la Cultura Cubana Juan Marinello, 2004, 283 p. [ULIB F 1789 N3 M66X 2004] This is a well researched historical study of black social clubs. It includes an annex with a list of members and groups.

    Mullen, Edward J. Afro-Cuban Literature: Critical Junctures. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1998, 236 p. [ULIB PQ 7372 M85 1998]

    Naranjo Orovio, Consuelo, and García González, Armando. Racismo e inmigración en Cuba en el siglo XIX. Madrid: Doce Calles: Fundación de Investigaciones Marxistas, 1996, 236 p. [ULIB F 1789 N3 N37 1996] This is a well researched history of the ideas about race among prominent biologists, physicians and anthropologists. Its emphasis is on the period 1800 to 1870s. It reproduces some primary documents.

    Ortiz, Fernando. Cuban Counterpoint: Tabacco and Sugar. New York: Vintage Books, 1970, 312 p.[ULIB HD 9144 C9 O72] This classic study, first published in 1940, analyzes the role of the afro and indiginous populations in the production process og tabacco and sugar..

    Perez Betancourt, Alvaro. Voices of the Orishas. Berkeley, CA: University of California Extension Center for Media and Independent Learning, 1993 (Videocassette). [ULIB-R BL 2532 S3 V65V 1993A] This film offers a look at the Santeria religion as practiced in Cuba.

    Pérez Sarduy, Pedro, and Stubbs, Jean, eds. AfroCuba: An Anthology of Cuban Writing on Race, Politics and Culture. Melbourne, Victoria, Australia: Latin America Bureau, Ocean Press, 1993, 309 p. [ULIB F 1789 N3 A37X 1993] This text is a multidisciplinary anthology about the black experience by Cuban scholars, writers and artists. It includes short notes on terminology and a glossary of Afro-Cuban terms.

    Pérez Sarduy, Pedro, and Stubbs, Jean, eds. Afro-Cuban Voices: on Race and Identity in Contemporary Cuba. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 2000, 200 p. [ULIB F 1789 N3 P47 2000] This is an anthology of multidisciplinary essays by contemporary writers and artists, focusing on race relations and identity. It includes a glossary of Afro-Cuban terms and an extensive bibliography.

    Rolando, Glaria. My Footsteps in Baraguá. Havana, Cuba: Mundo Latino, 1996 (Videocassette). [ULIB-R F 1789 N3 M94V 1996] This documentary presents the history of the people of African descent in the Cuban municipality of Baraguas, many of whom migrated from the English-speaking West Indies.

    Sawyer, Mark Q. Racial Politics in Post-revolutionary Cuba. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2006, 199 p. [ULIB F 1789 A1 S29 2006] This well researched interdisciplinary study uses ethnographic interviews, surveys and archival data to explore the topic from the pre-revolutionary period until the end of the twentieth century.

    Sosa Rodriguez, Enrique. Los ñañigos. Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba: Casa de las Américas, 1982, 464 p. [ULIB BL 2530 C9 S67X 1982] This is an important ethnographic study of Afro-Cuban secret societies from their origins in Africa to the post-revolutionary period.

    Valdés, Yrmino. Ceremonias fúnebres de la santería afrocubana: Ituto y honras de Egún. Antiguo San Juan, PR: Sociedad de Autores Libres, 1991, 67 p. [ULIB F 1789 Y6 V35 1991] This is a compilation of ritual ceremonies in the Santeria religion; with illustrations.

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    Dominican Republic

    Abréu, Diógenes. Perejil : el ocaso de la "hispanidad" dominicana : celebración de la multiplicidad cultural desde New York. República Dominicana: Mediabyte, 2004. 370 p. This multidisciplinary study of Dominicans living in the city of New York proposes a diverse and pluralistic notion of national identity which recognizes and includes people of African descent. [ULIB F 1941 A1 A837X 2004]

    Alegría-Pons, José Francisco. Gagá y vudú en la República Dominicana: ensayos antropológicos. Puerto Rico: Ediciones El Chango Prieto, 1993, 128 p. [ULIB BL 2532 G33 A54 1993]

    Davis, Martha Ellen. Ruta Hacia Liborio: mesianismo en el Sur Profundo dominicano. República Dominicana: La Ruta Hacia Liborio, 2004, 319 p. This source compiles articles about Oliborio Mateo, leader of a mesianic religious movement among a community of people of African descent in the sothern part of the Dominican Republic. [ULIB BL 2566 D65 R88 2004]

    Franco, Franklin J. Los negros, los mulatos y la Nación Dominicana. Santo Domingo: Editora Nacional, 1984, 162 p. [ULIB F 1941 N4 F7 1984]

    Franco, Franklin J. Sobre racismo y antihaitianismo y otros ensayos. Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic: [s.n.], 1997, 183 p. [ULIB F 1941 A1 F73 1997]

    Howard, David. Coloring the Nation: Race and Ethnicity in the Dominican Republic. Oxford: Rienner Publishers, 2001, 227 p. [ULIB F 1941 A1 H69 2001]

    Larrazábal Blanco, Carlos. Los negros y la esclavitud en Santo Domingo. Santo Domingo, República Dominicana: J. D. Postigo, 1967, 200 p. [ULIB HT 1081 L3]

    Rosenberg, June C. El Gagá: religión y sociedad de un culto dominicano: un estudio comparativo. Santo Domingo, República Dominicana: Universidad Autónoma de Santo Domingo, 1979, 233 p. [ULIB BL 2532 G33 R67 1979] This text is a well researched and illustrated anthropological study of an Afro-Dominican religious practice known as "gaga".

    Sagás, Ernesto. Race and Politics in the Dominican Republic. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 2000, 160 p. [ULIB F 1941 A1 S34 2000]

    Tolentino Dipp, Hugo. Raza e historia en Santo Domingo: los orígenes del prejuicio racial en América. Santo Domingo, República Dominicana: Fundación Cultural Dominicana, 1992, 296 p. [ULIB E 29 A1 T66 1992] This text analyzes the historical origins of racial prejudice in the Dominican Republic in the first century of colonization.

    Ubiñas Renville, Juan Guaroa. Historias y leyendas afro-dominicanas . Santo Domingo, República Dominicana: Manatí, 2003, 189 p. [ULIB GR 121 D6 U25X 2003]

    Weyland, Karin. Congo pa’ ti (Congo for you: Afro-Latin Identity in Dominican Culture).Malassa Foundation, 2004 (Videocassette) [ULIB-R F 1941 B55 C65V 2004] This documentary explores issues of race, identity and culture in the Afro-Dominican community of Villa Mella.

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    Jamaica

    Agorsah, Emmanuel Kofi., ed. Maroon Heritage: Archaeological, Ethnographic, and Historical Perspectives. Barbados: Canoe Pr., 1994, 210 p. [ULIB F 1896 N4 M37X 1994] This is an anthology of articles about the maroon communities of Jamaica. It includes maps and illustrations.

    Barrett, Leonard E. The Rastafarians. Boston: Beacon Press, 1997, 306 p. [ULIB BL 2532 R37 B37 1997]

    Barrett, Leonard E. The Sun and the Drum: African Roots in Jamaican Folk Tradition. Kingston, Jamaica: Sangster’s Book Stores, 1976, 128 p. [ULIB F 1896 N4 B37] This source is an introductory overview of Jamaican folk traditions of African origin.

    Bender, Wolfgang, Rastafarian Art. Kingston, Jamaica: Ian Randle, 2005, 130 p. [N 6609 R3813 2005]

    Campbell, Horace. Rasta and Resistance: from Marcus Garvey to Walter Rodney. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 1987, 234 p. [ULIB BL 2532 R37 C35 1987]

    Caribbean Quarterly. Rastafari. Kingston, Jamaica: University of the West Indies, 1985, 122 p. [ULIB BL 2532 R37 R38X 1985] This is an anthology of articles written by proponents of the Rastafari religion. It includes a chronology.

    Edmonds, Ennis Barrington. Rastafari: From Outcasts to Culture Bearers. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003, 194 p. [ULIB BL 2532 R37 E36 2003] This is a scholarly sociological study of the Rastafari religion in Jamaica.

    Erskine, Noel Leo. From Garvey to Marley: Rastafari Theology. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 2005, 224 p. [ULIB BL 2532 R37 E77 2005] This is a scholarly history of the Rastafari religious movement in Jamaica.

    Heunam, Gad. "The Killing Time”: the MorantBay Rebellion in Jamaica. London: Macmillan, 1994, 199 p. [ULIB F 1866 H48X 1994] This text is a well researched historical account of an important rebellion by Afro-Jamaicans in 1865.

    Heuman, Gad. Between Black and White: Race, Politics, and the Free Coloreds in Jamaica, 1792-1865. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1981, 241 p. [ULIB F 1896 N4 H48] This is a well researched and scholarly historical work. It includes statistical tables.

    Lake, Obiagele. RastafarI Women: Subordination in the Midst of Liberation Theology. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 1998, 199 p. [ULIB BL 2566 J25 L34 1998]

    Monteith, Kathleen and Glen, Richards, eds. Jamaica in Slavery and Freedom: History, Heritage and Culture. Kingston, Jamaica: University of the West Indies Press, 2002, 391 p. [ULIB F 1881 J35 2002] This text is an interdisciplinary anthology which includes several chapters on Afro-Jamaican history culture and politics. It includes an annotated bibliography of primary sources.

    Moore, Brian L., and Johnson, Michele A. Neither Led nor Driven: Contesting British Cultural Imperialism in Jamaica, 1865-1920. Kingston, Jamaica: University of the West Indies Press, 2004, 475 p. [ULIB F 1886 M66X 2004] This source explores the history of cultural ideas with an emphasis on the religious beliefs of Afro-Jamaicans. It includes an extensive bibliography.

    Mulvaney, Rebekah Michele. Rastafari and Reggae: a Dictionary and Sourcebook. New York: Greenwood Press, 1990, 253 p. [ULIB BL 2532 R37 M84 1990] This is a valuable reference source which includes a dictionary, a discography, and a videography all annotated and cross referenced. It also provides a list of magazines and artists.

    Murrell, Nathaniel S., Spencer, William D., and McFarlane, Adrian A., eds. Chanting Down Babylon: the Rastafari Reader. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 1998, 467 p. [ULIB BL 2532 R37 C43 1998] This comprehensive multidisciplinary anthology explores the Rastafari religion, culture and politics in Jamaica and the world. It includes an annotated bibliography and a glossary.

    Robinson, Carey. The Fighting Maroons of Jamaica. Kingston, Jamaica: W. Collins and Sangster, 1969, 160 p. [ULIB F 1884 R6 1969B] This is an account of the maroon resistance from the mid-seventeenth century to the end of the eighteenth century.

    Sterne, Henry. A Statement of Facts Submitted to the Right Hon. Lord Glenelg. New York: Negro Universities Press, 1969, 282 p. [ULIB F 1886 S83 1969] This is a facsimile of a statement by a former Jamaican slave made to the British parliament originally published in 1837 as part of the campaign to abolish slavery in the British colonies.

    Williams, James. A Narrative of Events since the First of August, 1834, by James Williams, an Apprenticed Labourer in Jamaica. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2001. 141 p. [ULIB F 1886 W56 2001] This is a new edition of an important narrative on "apprenticeship", a veiled form of slavery in Jamaica. It was originally published in 1837. It includes an introduction by historian Diana Paton.

    Zips, Werner. Black Rebels: African-Caribbean Freedom Fighters in Jamaica. Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener Publishers; Jamaica: Ian Randle Publishers, 1999, 292 p. [ULIB F 1884 Z5613 1999] This text is a history of maroon communities in Jamaica. It includes an extensive bibliography and a glossary.

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    Puerto Rico

    Alegría Ortega, Idsa E. and Ríos González, Palmira N., eds. Contrapunto de género y raza en Puerto Rico. Río Piedras, PR: Centro de Investigaciones Sociales, Universidad de Puerto Rico, 2005, 294 p. [ULIB F 1983 A1 C65 2001] This is an anthology of articles on the topic of discrimination based on gender and race in Puerto Rico.

    Concilio Puertorriqueño contra el Racismo. Boricuas son--: son de aquí--: los conoces? Carolina, PR: Concilio Puertorriqueño contra el Racismo, 2003, 246 p. [ULIB CT 524 B67 2003] This book presents over a hundred short biographies and photographs of important Afro-Puerto Ricans.

    Hernández Hiraldo, Samiri. Black Puerto Rican Identity and Religious Experience. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida 2006, 291 p. [ULIB BR 645 P7 H37 2006]

    Kinsbruner, Jay. Not of Pure Blood: the Free People of Color and Racial Prejudice in Nineteenth-Century Puerto Rico. Dirham, NC: Duke University Press, 1996, 176 p. [ ULIB F 1983 B55 K56 1996]

    López, Adolfo R. Herencia africana en Puerto Rico: un recuento breve. Hato Rey, PR: Editorial Cordillera, 2003, 48 p. [ULIB F 1983 N4 L67X 2003] This general text presents the contributions of people of African descent in different facets of Puerton Rican culture and society.

    Merino Falú, Aixa. Raza, género y clase social: el discrimen contra las mujeres afropuertorriqueñas. Puerto Rico: Oficina de la Procuradora de las Mujeres, 2004, 194 p. [ULIB F 1983 N4 M47 2004] This scholarly study deals with issues of gender, race and class in the lives of Afro-Puerto Rican women. It presents a historical overview, an analysis of racial discourse, a history of feminism and an analysis of black working women in the twentieth century. It includes statistical tables and graphs.

    Ortiz García, Angel L. Afropuertorriqueño(a). Río Piedras, PR: Editorial Edil, 2006, 281 p. [ULIB F 1983 N4 O78X 2006] This source is a historical study of Afro-Puerto Ricans and the influence they have had in society and culture. It includes chapters dealing with customs, religion, racism, education and music.

    Ortiz Lugo, Julia Cristina. Saben más que las arañas: ensayos sobre narrativa oral afropuertorriqueña. Ponce, PR: Centro de Investigaciones Folklóricas de Puerto Rico, Casa Paoli, 2004, 113 p. [ULIB GR 121 P8 O77X 2004] This source is an anthology of essays on the topic of Afro-Puerto Rican oral traditions.

    Sagrera, Martín. Racismo y política en Puerto Rico: la desintegración interna y externa de un pueblo. Río Piedras, PR: Editorial Edil, 1973, 157 p. [ULIB F 1983 P83 S23]

    Simpson, Victor C., ed. Afro-Puerto Ricans in the Short Story: An Anthology. New York: P. Lang, 2006, 136 p. [ULIB PQ 7436 A37 2006]

    Sued Badillo, Jalil. Puerto Rico negro . Río Piedras, PR: Editorial Cultural, 1986, 315 p. [ULIB F 1983 B55 S84 1986] This source is a history of Afro-Puerto Ricans in the colonial period. Its emphasis is on slaves and maroons. It includes graphics and statistical tables.

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    Other Countries - Caribbean

    Beckles, Hilary. Black Rebellion in Barbados: the Struggle against Slavery, 1627-1838. Bridgetown, Barbados: Carib Research & Publications, 1987, 164 p.[ULIB F 2041 B43 1984]

    Fischer, Sibylle. Modernity Disavowed: Haiti and the Cultures of Slavery in the Age of Revolution. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2004, 364 p. [ULIB F 1923 F57 2004]

    Gosson, Renée. Landscape and Memory: Martinican Land-People-History. Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell University; New York: Third World Newsreel, 2003 (Videocassette).[IMC F 2081.5 L36V 2003]

    Muehleisen, Susanne. Creole Discourse: Exploring Prestige Formation and Change across Caribbean English-Lexicon Creoles. Amsterdam; Philadelphia, PA: J. Benjamins Pub., 2002, 331 p. [ULIB PM 7874 C27 C74 2002]

    Palcy, Euzhan. Rue cases-nègres = Sugar Cane Alley. New York : New Yorker Video, 1995 (Videocassette). [ ULIB-R PQ 3949 Z6 R82X 1983A] This film, based on the book by the same title by Joseph Zobel, portrays the life of an Afro-Caribbean boy growing up in a shantytown in the island of Martinique during the 1930's.

    Patasar, Mungal. Chutney in Yuh Soca: A Multicultural Mix. New York: Filmakers Library, inc., 1996 (Videocassette). [IMC GN 495.6 C58V 1996] This documentary shows the interaction of the East Indian and African populations of Trinidad and Tobago through Chutney music: a mix of Indian folk music and Soca/Calypso.

    Schnepel, Ellen M. In Search of a National Identity: Creole and Politics in Guadeloupe. Hamburg: Helmut Buske Verlag, 2004, 294 p. [ULIB PM 7854 G8 S36X 2004]

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    Colombia

    Escalante, Aquiles. El negro en Colombia. Bogotá, Colombia: Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Facultad de Sociología, 1964, 196 p. [ULIB F 2299 N4 E8] This is a pioneering anthropological study and a first general history of Afro-Colombians.

    Restrepo, Fernando C. Los calabazos del sol (The Pumpkins of the Sun). New Cork: Latin American Video Archives, 2002 (Videocassette). [ULIB-R F 2281 C5 C35V 2002] This short documentary shows the lives of the children of a marginalized Afro-Colombian community in the Choco province.

    Wade, Peter. Blackness and Race Mixture: The Dynamics of Racial Identity in Colombia. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993, 415 p. [ULIB F 2299 B55 W3 1993]

    Wade, Peter. Music, Race & Nation: Musica Tropical in Colombia. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2000, 323 p. [ULIB ML 3487 C7 W33 2000]

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    Ecuador

    Carrillo N., Ricardo, and Salgado A., Samyr. Racismo y vida cotidiana: estudio de caso de una ciudad de la sierra ecuatoriana. Quito, Ecuador: Instituto de Antropología UPS: Ediciones Abya-Yala, 2002, 161 p. [ULIB F 3791 I3 C37X 2002] This source is an ethnological case study on the topic of racism in daily life in the city of Ibarra, Ecuador. It includes statistical information and interviews.

    Estupiñán Tello, Julio. El negro en Esmeraldas; apuntes para su estudio. Quito, Ecuador: Talleres Gráficos Nacionales, 1967, 175 p. [ULIB F 3741 E6 E8] This book is a general history of the population of Afro-Ecuadorians in the city of Esmeraldas. It includes chapters on slavery, and also poems and stories by and about people of African descent.

    Handelsman, Michael H., Lo afro y la plurinacionalidad: el caso ecuatoriano visto desde su literatura. Oxford, MS: Romance Monographs, 1999, 214 p. [ULIB PQ 8201 H36X 1999] This book contains several critical essays on nation and identity in Ecuadorian literature written by or about people of African descent.

    Whitten, Norman E., Black Frontiersmen; A South American Case. Cambridge, MA: Schenkman Pub. Co.,1974, 221 p. [ULIB F 3799 N4 W49 1974] This is an ethnographic study of Afro-Hispanic frontier communities in Ecuador, Panama and Colombia. It includes a glossary.

     Whitten, Norman E. Class, Kinship, and Power in an EcuadorianTown; the Negroes of San Lorenzo. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1965, 238 p. [ULIB F 3799 N4 W5]

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    Mexico

    Aguirre Beltrán, Gonzalo. La población negra de México; estudio etnohistórico. México: Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1972, 374 p. [ULIB F 1392 N4 A2 1972] This is a pioneering history of the people of African descent in Mexico in the colonial period, originally published in 1946. It emphasies the slave trade and presents valuable statistical data.

    Bausari, Carlos. La población negroide mexicana. Estadistica,México: 1943, 19 p. [ULIB F 1392 N4 B271] This short book presents a general overview of the people of African descent in Mexico. It discusses geographic, social and cultural aspects.

    Carroll, Patrick James. Blacks in Colonial Veracruz: Race Ethnicity, and Regional Development. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1991, 240 p. [ULIB F 1392 B55 C37 1991] This is a study of the populations of African descent and their relations with other ethnic groups in Vercruz, Mexico during the colonial period. It is well researched and includes an extensive bibliography.

    Ochoa, Alvaro. Afrodescendientes sobre piel canela. Zamora, Mexico: Gobierno del Estado de Michoacán, Mexico: El Colegio de Michoacán, 1997, 184 p. [ULIB F 1392 B55 O34X 1997]

    Rebollar, Rafael. La raiz olvidada [videorecording] = The Forgotten Roots. Mexico: D.R. Producciones Trabuco; New York: distributed by Latin American Video Archive, 1998 (Videocassette). [ULIB-R F 1392 N4 R35V 1998] This documentary presents the history of the populations of African descent in Mexico from slavery to the present.

    Serna, Juan Manuel de la, ed. Pautas de convivencia étnica en la América Latina colonial : (indios, negros, mulatos, pardos y esclavos). México: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Centro Coordinador y Difusor de Estudios Latinoamericanos, Gobierno del Estado de Guanajuato, 2005, 368 p. [ULIB F 1419 A1 P38X 2005] This source deals with the social history of black slaves and their relations with other ethnic groups, with an emphasis in Mexico. It is divided into two parts: "Conflict and Freedom" and "Institutions, Spaces and Ethnic Groups".

    Schwartz, Rosalie. Across the Rio to Freedom: U.S. Negroes in Mexico. El Paso, TX: Texas Western Press, University of Texas at El Paso, 1975, 64 p. [STOR F 786 S67X NO.44]

    Velázquez Gutiérrez, María Elisa. Poblaciones y culturas de origen africano en México. México: Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, 2005, 454 p. [ULIB F 1392 B55 P63X 2005] This book compiles recent historical and anthropological research on the topic of the populations of African descent in Mexico, emphasizing new perspectives and research methods.

    Vincent, Theodore G. The Legacy of Vicente Guerrero: Mexico’s First Black Indian President. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 2001, 336 p. [F 1232 V66 2001]

    Vinson, Ben. Afroméxico: el pulso de la población negra en México; una historia recordada, olvidada y vuelta a recordar. México: Fondo de Cultura Económica, 2004, 135 p. [ULIB F1392 B55 V5617 2004] This source is good starting point for research on people of African descent in Mexico. It presents a historical overview from slavery until the present, an ethnographic study of important Afro-Mexican communities and an extensive bibliography divided by topic.

    Vinson, Ben. Bearing Arms for His Majesty: the Free-Colored Militia in Colonial Mexico. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2001, 304 p. [ULIB UA 605 M55 V56 2001]

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    Peru

    Charún-Illescas, Lucía. Malambo. Chicago, IL: Swan Isle Press, 2004, 230 p. [ULIB PQ 8498.13 H295 M3513 2004] Historical novel which explores the lives of people of African descent in sixteenth and seventeenth-century Peru.

    Cuche, Denys. Poder blanco y resistencia negra en el Perú. Lima, Peru: Instituto Nacional de Cultura, 1975, 198 p. [ULIB F 3619 N4 C8] This is a study of class and race in the period after the abolition of slavery. It discusses social, cultural, political and economic issues facing people of African descent in Peru.

    Feldman, Heidi Carolyn. Black Rhythms of Peru: Reviving African Musical Heritage in the Black Pacific. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 2006, 306 p. [ULIB ML 3575 P4 F45 2006]

    Romero, Fernando. El negro en el Perú y su transculturación lingüística. Lima, Peru: Editorial Milla Batres, 1987, 176 p. [ULIB P 130.52 P4 R66 1987] This book presents a history of the migration of slaves from Africa to Peru and analyzes the impact that this migration had on the Spanish spoken in Peru and other Latin American countries from a linguistic perspective. It contains maps and photographs.

    Sotomayor Roggero, Carmela, and Aranda de los Ríos, Ramón. Sublevación de campesinos negros en Chincha, 1879. Lima Peru: Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, 1979, 67 p. [ULIB F 3451 C5 S66]

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    Uruguay

    Lewis, Marvin A. Afro-Uruguayan Literature: Post-Colonial Perspectives. Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell University Press, 2003, 170 p. [ULIB PQ 8510.5 L49 2003]

    Merino, Francisco M. El negro en la sociedad montevideana. Montevideo, Uruguay: Ediciones de la Banda Oriental, 1982, 103 p. [ULIB F 2781.9 B55 M47 1982] This book deals with the situation of people of African descent in Uruguay in the second half of the twentieth century. It includes chapters on discrimination, social opportunities, and the influence Afro-Uruguayans have had in music and sports.

    Páez Vilaró, Carlos. Candombe.Páez Vilaró, Carlos. New York: Latin American Video Archives, 2002 (Videocassette). [ULIB-R GV 1796 C14 C35V 2002] This is a documentary about Candombe: a musical form that originated in Africa and was brought to Uruguay by slaves. It explains the history of this genre as well as its present importance in Urugay's society and culture.

    Pereda Valdés, Ildefonso. El negro en el Uruguay, pasado y presente. Montevideo, Uruguay: Revista del Instituto Histórico y Geográfico del Uruguay, 1965, 300 p. [ULIB F 2799 N3 P39] This source is a pioneering history of the people of African descent in Urugay since slavery. It discusses their role in the military, the discrimination they have suffered, their inclusion in society, and their cultural and social contributions.

    Porzecanski, Teresa; Santos, Beatriz, eds. Historias de exclusión: afrodescendientes en el Uruguay. Montevideo, Uruguay: Linardi y Risso, 2006, 139 p. [ULIB F 2799 N3 H57X 2006] This book compiles 11 life histories in which men and women of African descent narrate their experiences of social exclusion and racial discrimination as well as their advances and achievements.

    Rama, Carlos M., Los afro-uruguayos. Montevideo, Uruguay: El Siglo Ilustrado, 1967, 98 p. [STOR HT 1149 R3]

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    Venezuela

    Arcaya, Pedro Manuel. Insurrección de los negros de la Serranía de Coro. Caracas, Venezuela:Instituto Panamericano de Geografía e Historia.1949, 57 p. [ULIB F 2349 N4 A7] This source is a historical account of a rebellion of people of African descent which took place in the Coro region of Venezuela in 1795.

    Bracho Reyes, José. Chimbánguele: paradigma del cimarronaje cultural en Venezuela. Caracas, Venezuela: Ministerio de la Cultura, Consejo Nacional de la Cultura, 2005, 169 p. [ULIB F 2349 B55 B73 2005] This source is a multidisciplinary analysis of a ritual festival called Chimbánguele which takes place in several communities of African descent in Venezuela. These ritual activities, originating in colonial times, include dancing and musical performances and represent forms of cultural resistance and survival.

    Chacón, Alfredo. Poblaciones y culturas negras de Venezuela. Caracas, Venezuela: Instituto Autónomo Biblioteca Nacional y de Servicios de Bibliotecas, 1983, 86 p. [ULIB F 2349 B55 C53X 1983]

    Liscano, Juan. Folklore y cultura, ensayos. Caracas, Venezuela: Avila Grafica, 1950, 266 p. [ULIB F 2310 L5] This book deals with expressions of folklore such as poetry in popular music, popular festivals and celebrations and includes a chapter on the history of people of African descent in Venezuela.

    Megenney, William W. Aspectos del lenguaje afronegroide en Venezuela. Frankfurt am Main: Vervuert;  Madrid: Iberoamericana, 1999, 311 p. [ULIB PC 4911 M44 1999] This is a study of the African influences in the Spanish language spoken in Venezuela. It also inlcudes a chapter on slavery in Venezuela and the Caribbean and historical and demographic information on several Afro-Venezuelan communities.

    Ramos Guédez, José Marcial. El negro en Venezuela: aporte bibliográfico. Caracas, Venezuela: Instituto Autónomo Biblioteca Nacional y de Servicios de Bibliotecas, Goberanción del Estado Miranda, 1985, 279 p. [ULIB F 2349 B55 R37 1985] This important bibliography on the topic of Afro-Venezuela includes two introductory essays, and a list of sources organized alphabetically within each of the following sections: reference works, books and pamphlets, journals, and literature. It also includes an index by author.

    Sojo, Juan Pablo. Temas y apuntes afro-venezolanos. Caracas, venezuela: La Nación, 1943, 60 p. [ULIB F 2349 N4 S6] This short book presents an essay on the topic of Afro-Venezuela. It inculdes sections on customs, rituals and racial discrimination.

    Wright, Winthrop R. Café Con Leche: Race, Class, and National Image in Venezuela. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1990, 167 p. [ULIB F 2349 B55 W75 1990] This scholarly work includes the following chapters: "The Myth of Racial Democracy", "The Colonial Legacy: Racial Tensions in a Hierarchical Society", "Whitening the Population, 1850-1900" and "Race and National Image in the Era of Popular Politics, 1890-1935".

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    Other Countries

    Capelli, Luciano. The Promised Ship. San Jose, Costa Rica: Río Nevado Producciones, 2000 (Videocassette). [IMC E 185.97 G3 P76V 2000] This documentary deals with Marcus Garvey, the important Afro-Jamaican leader, and his plans for a mass migration back to Africa. It focuses on the impact that these ideas had on the people of African descent in the city of Limon in Costa Rica.

    England, Sarah. Afro Central Americans in New York City: Garifuna Tales of Transnational Movements in Racialized Space. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 2006, 273 p. [ULIB F 1505.2 C3 E54 2006]

    Voorhoeve, Jan. Creole Drum: An Anthology of Creole Literature in Surinam. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1975, 308 p. [ULIB PM 7875 S676 C7]

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    Updated 28 March 2007