Term Papers, Theses and Research Proposals
This bibliography is a selective listing of sources intended to assist students and faculty in writing and documenting term papers, theses and dissertations as well as reports and proposals. The materials included in the bibliography are available in the libraries of the University at Albany. Those items having "EXT" as the locational designation with the call number are shelved in the Dewey Graduate Library for Public Affairs and Policy; those items with "EXT Ref" are shelved in the reference area of the Dewey Graduate Library. Those items designated "SCIENCE" in the call number are shelved in the Science Library. Those items designated "SCIENCE Ref" are shelved in the reference area of the Science Library. Other materials are housed in the University Library either in the general collection, in the reference area (if designated "REF"), in the Ready Reference collection (designated "RREF"), in the Interactive Media Center (designated "IMC") or in the Reserve Collection (if designated "RBR").
If you need assistance in locating or using these sources, or if you want to locate other materials related to these topics, please consult a reference librarian.
The Writer's Advisor. Leland G. Alkire, Jr., compiler, Cheryl I. Westerman, associate editor. Detroit, MI: Gale Research Co., 1985. [PN 145 Z999 W75X 1985]
A guide to books and articles about writing novels, short stories, poetry, dramatic scripts, screenplays, magazine articles, biographies, technical articles, and books. Includes a chapter on manuscript preparation, including revision, rewriting, and word processing as well as chapters on technical writing and on style manuals.
Brusaw, Charles T., Gerald J. Alred, and Walter E. Oliu. Handbook of Technical Writing. NY: St. Martin's Press, 1997. [REF T 11 B78 1997]
This practical reference guide for students in technical writing courses provides comprehensive coverage of grammar, usage, style and format, as well as information on planning, research, outlining, methods of development, reports, proposals, instructions, specifications, job descriptions, letters, and memoranda. The alphabetical arrangement of entries is supplemented by a topical key and an index.
Bradley, Dorothy, H.E. Klein, and N. Matheson. Some Principles of Good Writing and the Library Search. Rev. ed. Washington, DC: National Association of Social Workers, 1980. [EXT Ref H 91 B69 1980]
Covers the entire process of writing a research paper, from the library research to the finished product. Intended for beginning researchers and writers in the social sciences.
Dees, Robert. Writing the Modern Research Paper. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1993. [LB 2369 D44 1993]
Step-by-step guide to writing a research paper from selecting a topic to preparing the final manuscript. Sample research papers and selected subject reference sources are included in the appendix.
Mack, Karin and Eric Skjei. Overcoming Writing Blocks. Los Angeles, CA: J.P. Tarcher, 1979. [LB 1631 M33 1979]
Designed as a resource book, provides specific chapters on student writing of essay exams, theses, and research papers. Includes suggestions for technical, academic, and professional writing of grant proposals, research reports, and articles.
Stott, Bill; foreword by Clifford Stoll. Write to the Point, and Feel Better About Your Writing. NY: Columbia University Press, 1991. [PE 1408 S7665 1991]
Proposes to teach readers how to write better. Presents chapters on what counts in writing, topic development, getting your point across, organizing and writing the paper, and grammatical rules of writing.
Troyka, Lynn Quitman. Simon & Schuster Handbook for Writers. 3rd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1993. [RBR PE 1408 T696 1993]
Contains a collection of rules on the conventions of written English as well as theories on how to write essays. Appendix A covers writing with a computer. Appendix B gives the correct manuscript format. A usage glossary, glossary of grammatical and selected composition terms and an index are included.
Using the Internet, Online Services & CD-ROMS for Writing Research and Term Papers. Charles Harmon, editor. New York: Neal Schuman Publishers, c1996. [EXT/LB 1047.3 U75 1996]van Leunen, Mary-Claire. A Handbook for Scholars. Rev. ed. NY: Oxford University Press, 1992. [REF PN 146 V36 1992]
For scholars to help with mechanical issues of citation, quotation, content footnotes, references, and reference lists in scholarly writing.
The Writer's Handbook. Boston, MA: Writer, Inc. [REF PN 137 W73] (Latest issue shelved in REF) Also in Dewey. Includes sections on (1) how to write, (2) editors, agents, and businesses, and (3) where to sell. This annual volume includes suggestions for fiction, nonfiction, drama, television, juvenile, and adult writers. Includes a list of writers conferences and organizations for writers. Revised annually.
Fleischer, Eugene B. A Style Manual for Citing Microform and Nonprint Media. Chicago, IL: American Library Association, 1978. [REF PN 171 F56 F57]
Sets forth rules, with examples, for citing sound recordings, motion pictures, microforms and other media not generally treated in other style manuals.
Garner, Diane L. and Diane H. Smith. The Complete Guide to Citing Government Information Resources: A Manual for Writers and Librarians. Bethesda, MD: Congressional Information Service, 1993. [EXT / Ref J 9.5 Z999 G37X 1993]
Intended for writers, general reference librarians and government documents specialists as a supplement to standard style/citation manuals. Provides more detailed information about sources and types of government documents as well as about access points important for document location. Attempts to conform stylistically to ANSI bibliographic standards.
Gibaldi, Joseph. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 4th ed. NY: Modern Language Association of America, 1995. [REF PE 1478 M57 1995]
Also on reserve and in Dewey. Serves as a reference book of style guidelines for writers of research papers. Includes chapters on research and writing, mechanics of writing, research paper format, list of works cited, documenting sources, and sample pages of a research paper. This edition takes into consideration documenting nonprint sources, including computer software.
Li, Xia and Nancy B. Crane. Electronic Styles: A Handbook for Citing Electronic Information. Medford, NJ: Information Today, 1996. [ReadyRef PN 171 F56 L5 1996]
Also in Reference and in Dewey. As the title indicates, this addresses citing information that is not in print format, but in electronic format. It includes e- mail, listservs, websites, and newsgroup postings. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. 4th ed. Washington, DC: The APA, 1994. [ReadyRef BF 76.7 P83 1994]
Also on Reserve and in Dewey. Guide for authors preparing manuscripts in the field of psychology. Presents rules for style and policy reflecting changes in the language of psychology and incorporating current national and international standards of scientific communication. Widely used by other disciplines in the social sciences.
Turabian, Kate L. A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. 6th ed. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1996. [ReadyRef LB 2369 T82 1996]
Also on Reserve and in Dewey. Guide to suitable style in the presentation of term papers, theses, and dissertations. Includes sections of footnotes, bibliographies, and citing public documents. Widely used.
University of Chicago Press. The Chicago Manual of Style: For Authors, Editors, and Copywriters. 14th ed., rev. and expanded. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993. [REF Z 253 U69 1993]
Also in Dewey. Includes chapters on bookmaking, style, production and printing. Specific examples are provided on quotations, footnotes, bibliographies, and citing public documents.
This site includes interactive forms for creating MLA style bibliographic citations. It includes citing Internet resources as well as print sources.
Style Guides . University at Albany Libraries. This is a collection of sites on the web that will help writers of research papers.
CitationFox APA Style Guide. University at Albany Libraries. This gives formats and examples of citations in the APA style.
CitationFox MLA Style Guide. University at Albany Libraries. This gives examples of citations in the MLA style.
Berry, Ralph. How to Write a Research Paper. 2nd ed. Oxford, Oxfordshire; NY: Pergamon Press, 1986. [LB 2369 B38 1986]
Introduction to the research paper for students at all levels of higher education. Includes a complete sample paper. Appendix contains "Guidelines for Nonsexist Language in APA Journals."
Lester, James D. Writing Research Papers: A Complete Guide. NY: Longman, 1999. [LB 2369 L4 1999]
Weidenborner, Stephen and Domenick Caruso. Writing Research Papers: A Guide to the Process. 3rd ed. NY: St. Martin's Press, 1990. [REF LB 1047.3 W44 1990]
Introduces students to the research process by providing coverage of defining objectives, using the library, searching for sources, taking notes, writing the paper, documenting sources, and preparing the final manuscript.
The Write Course [videorecording]: An Introduction to College Composition. Santa Barbara, CA: Intellimation, 1984. [IMC VidCas PE 1408 W75X 1984 No.1-2 through No. 29-30] 15 videocassette program that covers the process from beginning to end for beginners.
Balian, Edward S. How to Design, Analyze, and Write Doctoral Research: The Practical Guidebook. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1988. [IMC / BKSOFT LB 2369 B24X 1988]
This guidebook presents chapters on developing research ideas, literature reviews, understanding and developing hypotheses, evaluating research designs, instrumentation and testing, sampling techniques and data collection methods, statistical analysis, and writing the final report. Applicable to proposals as well. Includes Select-Stat 2.0 disk.
Davis, Gordon Bitter and Clyde A. Parker. Writing the Doctoral Dissertation: A Systematic Approach. Hauppauge, NY: Barron's, 1997. [LB 2369 D357 1997]
Glatthorn, Allan A. Writing the Winning Dissertation: A Step-by- Step Guide. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, 1998. [LB 2369 G56 1998]
Long, Thomas J., John J. Convey, and Adele R. Chwalek. Completing Dissertations in the Behavioral Sciences and Education. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 1985. [LB 2369 L65 1985]
Reinforces the critical steps in the dissertation process. Includes chapters on overcoming obstacles to completing dissertations, defining and developing a topic, making effective use of special library resources, selecting and working with an advisory committee, writing the proposal, and using computers and other sources of research assistance. Appendix A is a sample timeline for completing a dissertation.
Mauch, James E. and Jack W. Birch. Guide to the Successful Thesis and Dissertation: Conception to Publication: A Handbook for Students and Faculty. 2nd ed. NY: M. Dekker, 1989. [LB 2369 M377 1989]
Also in Dewey. Discusses how to go through the process of writing a thesis or dissertation from the development of a proposal to the completion of the writing, the defense of the thesis or dissertation and preparation of it for publication. A bibliography, author index and subject index are included.
Meloy, Judith M. Writing the Qualitative Dissertation: Understanding by Doing. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1994. [LB 2369 M38 1994]
Parsons, A.J. and Peter Knight. How to Do Your Dissertation in Geography and Related Disciplines. London; New York: Chapman & Hall, 1995. [LB 2369 P36 1995]
Preece, R.A. Starting Research: An Introduction to Academic Research and Dissertation Writing. London; New York: Pinter Publishers, 1994. [LB 2369 P69 1994]
Van Wagenen, R. Keith. Writing a Thesis: Substance and Style. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1990. [LB 2369 V257 1990]
Watson, George. Writing a Thesis: A Guide to Long Essays and Dissertations. London: NY: Longman, 1987. [LB 2369 W34 1987]
Describes how to write scholarly prose, how to shape it, and how to document it. Divided into two main sections ("The Approach" and "The Techniques"), this guide not only presents technical aspects of the thesis such as quoting, footnotes, and bibliography but also addresses questions on style, arguments, and writing.
Corry, Emmett. Grants for Libraries: A Guide to Public and Private Funding Programs and Proposal Writing Techniques . 2nd ed. Littleton, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 1986.[REF Z 683 C754 1986]
Intended for librarians interested in securing grants for libraries, but contains useful general information on developing and writing grant proposals as well as a listing of potential sources for grants.
Krathwohl, David R. How to Prepare a Research Proposal: Guidelines for Funding and Dissertations in the Social and Behavioral Sciences. 3rd ed. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1988. [REF HG 177 K73 1988]
Includes sections on the preparation of the proposal, a variety of aids to help in proposal preparation, locating funds, and help for beginners and doctoral students. Divides the proposal into three parts: the development and presentation of the problem, how to attack it, and the resources available and needed to carry out the project.
Larson, Virginia. How to Write a Winning Proposal. With a special section on computer and word processing applications by Charles W. Koch. 2nd ed., Updated and rev. San Diego, CA: Classic House, 1986. [REF HF 5718.5 L37 1986]
Helps readers write a winning proposal for a business organization, a government entity, or a community service agency. Topics include types of proposals, marketing techniques, job descriptions of proposal team members, a suggested proposal outline, a suggested proposal plan, and the role of the computer and word processor in proposal preparation.
Lefferts, Robert. Getting A Grant in the 1990s: How to Write Successful Grant Proposals. New York, NY: Prentice Hall, 1990. [HG 177.5 U6 L44 1990] This guide includes a full proposal with critique, a glossary, and a bibliography of state and local foundation directories. There is also a full chapter listing resources that may be used to find funding sources.
Meador, Roy. Guidelines for Preparing Proposals . 2nd ed. Chelsea, Mich: Lewis Publishers, 1991. [HF 5718.5 M43 1991]
Miner, Lynn E., Jeremy T. Miner and Jerry Griffth. Proposal Planning and Writing. Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press, 1998. [EXT / Ref HG 177.5 U6 M56 1998]
This covers the grant process from finding sources of funding. Includes suggestions for governmental and private sector proposals from first draft to final revision. There is a lengthy and current bibliography which leads to other writing guides and funding directories.
Stewart, Rodney D. and Ann L. Stewart. Proposal Preparation. 2nd ed. NY: Wiley, 1992. [HF 5718.5 S85 1992]
Demonstrates how to convey capability, competence, compliance, and comprehension in a proposal. Describes the proposal evaluation process in order to give vital clues needed to prepare winning proposals and suggests a standardized methodology.
Tepper, Ron. How to Write Winning Proposals for Your Company or Client. NY: Wiley, 1989. [HF 5718.5 T46 1989]
Private and public sector executives combined their expertise in proposal writing in presenting the detailed steps involved in successful proposal writing. Proposals in this sense are requests for financial support. Includes samples throughout the book of everything from a budget to a full proposal.
Lee, Mary, et al. The Handbook of Technical Writing: Form and Style. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1990. [SCIENCE T 11 H36X 1990] Reference guide for technical writing. Includes grammar, punctuation, mechanics, diction, effective sentences, business letters, formal reports, proposals, and manuals.
Moore, Nick and Martin Help. Basics of Writing Reports Etcetera. London: Clive Bingley, 1985. [HF 5719 M66X 1986]
Identifies three types of reports and suggests how they should be constructed: (1) reports which describe, (2) reports which record, and (3) reports which persuade. Includes a chapter on research reports. Includes annual reports.
Van Emden, Joan and Jennifer Easteal. Report Writing. 10th ed. London; NY: McGraw-Hill, 1987. [PE 1478 V28 1987] Covers report writing from preparation, format, vocabulary, data presentation, and revision with case studies.
Bell, Arthur. NTC's Business Writer's Handbook: Business Communication from A to Z. Lincolnwood, IL: NTC Publishing Group, 1996. [REF HF 5726 B45X 1996]
This is arranged alphabetically and easy to use. It provides examples of well written documents, addresses word usage, and suggests etiquette for different settings such as meetings and public speaking.
Blake, Gary and Robert W. Bly. The Elements of Business Writing. NY: Maxwell Macmillan International, 1991. [HF 5718.3 B53 1991]
Concise style guide for writers of business letters, memos, reports, manuals, proposals, brochures, press releases, and advertisements in business, industry, and government. Provides "before and after" examples throughout of bad samples and good ones.
Elser, Arthur G. Writing From Scratch: For Business. Savage, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1990. [HF 5718.3 E48 1990]
Guide to writers of business proposals and instructions. Leads the reader through the first draft to the final copy. The appendix includes samples of memos and letters.
Goodworth, Clive T. The Secrets of Successful Business Report Writing. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1991. [HF 5719 G66X 1991]
This is a step-by-step guide with examples and exercises in each chapter. It begins with classifying the report and ends with adding graphics. The appendix is a guide to grammar, usage, etc.
Lesikar, Raymond Vincent and John D. Pettit, Jr. Report Writing for Business. 8th ed. Homewood, IL: Irwin, 1991. [REF HF 5719 L45 1991]
Major emphasis on organizing and writing reports, stressing the search 1991 methodology which precedes report preparation. Includes chapters on graphics and grammar and an appendix on measuring readability.
The ACS Style Guide: A Manual for Authors and Editors. Janet S. Dodd, editor. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society, 1997. [SCIENCE Ref QD 8.5 A25 1997]
Style guide stressing principles and practices that are desirable throughout scientific literature. Includes discussion of machine readable manuscripts as well as elements of grammar, style, and usage.
Simon, Alan R. and Jordan S. Simon. The Computer Professionals Guide to Effective Communications. NY: McGraw-Hill, 1993. [HF 5718 S548 1993]
Computer professional's guide to written and verbal communications. Includes chapters on writing requests for proposals and writing winning proposals.
Furst, Edward J. The Writing Requirement for the Doctorate in Education. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1990. [LB 1742 F87 1990]
Designed to serve as a supplement to other textbooks and guides for students and faculty. Includes chapters on suitable studies for the doctorate in education, organization of the dissertation or thesis, writing the dissertation, writing or evaluating a proposal for research, problems and hypotheses, and reporting statistical results.
Barzun, Jacques and Henry F. Graff. The Modern Researcher. 4th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1992. [REF D 13 B334 1992]
Also in Dewey. Intended to guide and instruct students, especially those in history, in the arts of research and writing. Includes sections on research and writing as fundamentals of informed exposition.
Associated Press Stylebook and Libel Manual: Including Guidelines on Photo Captions, Filing the Wire, Proofreaders' Marks, Copywriters. Norm Goldstein, editor. Fully updated and rev. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1998. [REF PN 4783 A83 1998]
Dictionary arrangement of terms, phrases, and abbreviations specifying usage preferred by writers and editors of The Associated Press. Includes chapters for writing on sports and business as well as on punctuation and computer terms. Also includes a section on libel, copyright, and the Freedom of Information Act.
Botts, Jack. The Language of News: A Journalist's Pocket Reference. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press, 1994. [REF PN 4783 B68 1994] This comes in a handy format. It is largely dedicated to word choice; cliche, bias, specificity, jargon, and grammar, tied together with writing the story.
MacDonald, R.H. A Broadcast News Manual of Style. NY: Longman, 1994. [REF PN 4784 B75 M24 1994)] This covers radio and television writing and includes sample scripts for each. It also covers spelling, usage, and grammar as it applies to television and radio writing.
Alley, Brian and Jennifer Cargill. Librarian in Search of a Publisher: How to Get Published. Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press, 1986. (EXT / Z 669.7 A39 1986)
Bradley, Jana and Larry Bradley. Improving Written Communication in Libraries. Chicago: American Library Association, 1988. [EXT / Z 678 B815 1988]
MacAllister, Joyce. Writing About Literature: Aims and Process. NY: Macmillan, 1987. [PE 1479 C7 M33 1987]
Focuses on the process of writing about literature. Arranged like a textbook, with exercises, checklists, and sample essays. Includes chapters devoted to informative writing about characters, persuasive writing about controlling themes, persuasive evaluations, and researched writing.
Wingell, Richard J. Writing About Music: An Introductory Guide. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1990. [ML 3797 W54 1990]
Offers information on writing about musical style, doing research, organizing a paper, general writing style and common writing errors. A sample paper and index are included.
American Institute of Physics. AIP Style Manual. NY: American Institute of Physics, 1990. [SCIENCE QC 5.45 A45 1990]
Provides guidance in writing, editing, and preparing physics manuscripts to be published in AIP publications and publications of its member societies.
Harris, Peter R. Designing and Reporting Experiments. Milton Keynes, England; Philadelphia, PA: Open University Press, 1986. [BF 200 H37 1986]
Intended for students in psychology as a guide to the design of experiments and to the reporting of the design and results.
Kellerman, Henry and Anthony Burry. Handbook of Psychodiagnostic Testing: Analysis of Personality in the Psychological Report. 3rd ed. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1997. [SCIENCE RC 469 K44 1997]
Offers psychology students as well as professional psychologists a source for the construction and organization of psychological test reports. Includes a chapter on "Sections in the Typical Psychodiagnostic Report" including the interview, testing, intellectual functioning, nature of anxiety, impulse vs. control, defense structure, identity, diagnosis and prognosis. Also includes a section on overcoming impasses in report writing.
Loke, Wing Hong. A Guide to Journals in Psychology and Education. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1990. [REF BF 76.8 L65 1990]
Includes detailed descriptions of the major journals involved in psychology and education to assist authors in manuscript submission.
Ownby, Raymond L. Psychological Reports: A Guide to Report Writing in Professional Psychology. NY: J. Wiley, 1997. [BF 76.8 O86 1997]
Rosnow, Ralph L. and Mimi Rosnow. Writing Papers in Psychology: A Student Guide. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Pub. Co., 1992. [BF 76.7 R67 1992]
Includes chapters on getting started, using the library, outlining the term paper, planning the research report, writing and revising, layout and typing. A sample term paper and research report are appended.
Tallent, Norman. Psychological Report Writing. 4th ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1993. [BF 76.8 T33 1993]
Presents an approach to writing which focuses on psychological reports. Includes sections on the settings of psychological assessment; in schools, psychotherapy setting, and in the court setting. There is also a guide to checking the reports and a selected bibliography of recommended readings.
Beach, David P. and Torsten K.E. Alvager. Handbook for Scientific and Technical Research. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1992. [SCIENCE Q 180.3 B43 1992]
Designed to help first year graduate students in scientific or technical disciplines as they begin their research. Includes units on a time schedule for graduate research, research planning and design, methodologies of research design, measurement, data analysis and models and presenting results of the research. Appendices present grant proposal guidelines and a sample research report.
Day, Robert A. How to Write & Publish a Scientific Paper. 3rd ed. Phoenix AZ: Oryx Press, 1988. [SCIENCE Ref T 11 D33 1988]
A "how to" book for preparing scientific papers. This edition adds chapters on how scientific writing is different from other forms of writing and a glossary of technical terms. Analyzes each element of the scientific paper from "How to Prepare the Title" to "How to Cite the References." >
Lee, Mary. The Handbook of Technical Writing: Form and Style. San Diego, CA: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1990. [SCIENCE T 11 H36X 1990]
Patrias, Karen. National Library of Medicine Recommended Formats for Bibliographic Citation. Bethesda, MD: U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, National Library of Medicine, Reference Section, 1991. [SCIENCE Ref R 119 P38X 1991]
The National Library of Medicine provides authors, editors, and librarians recommended formats for bibliographic citation; including citations for published and unpublished materials and electronic information formats.
Scientific Style and Format: The CBE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994. [SCIENCE REF T 11 S386 1994]
For a hefty text, it covers the basics of writing very well-- grammar, style, spelling, etc. It contains a 300 page section addressing scientific writing conventions, such as drug names and taxonomy. It also includes information on the scientific publishing process. Although this covers many science subjects, it was compiled by the Council of Biology Editors and its focus is biology.
Tichy, H. J. and Sylvia Foudrinier. Effective Writing for Engineers, Managers, Scientists. 2nd ed. NY: Wiley, 1988. [PE 1475 T53 1988]
Written for science and technology students. Details the order and sections of reports. A major emphasis of the book is devoted to better writing skills. Includes standards of grammar, punctuation, and standards of diction and style.
Beebe, Linda, Editor. Professional Writing for the Human Services. Washington, DC: National Association of Social Workers, NASW Press, 1993. [EXT HV 41 P759 1993]
This book's purpose is to help academics and practitioners in the human services improve their writing skills. Parts I and III address writing techniques, research, graphic presentation, and the mechanics of spelling, punctuation, statistics, etc. Part II and the appendices provide help for publication in professional books and journals.
Taylor, Gordon. The Student's Writing Guide for the Arts and Social Sciences. NY: Cambridge University Press, 1989. [REF PE 1478 T38 1989]
Also in Dewey. Guide for students writing academic essays. Includes three major parts: (1) "Reflection and Research"-choosing a topic, (2) "The Dynamics of an Essay"- beginning, middle, end of essay, and (3) "Language"-language, rhetorical strategies, cohesion, and conventions of academic writing. One appendix describes how to write book reviews.